Literature Review Cvd

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Literature Review
Cardiovascular Disease
Susan A. Hensley
Excelsior College

Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the foremost origins of morbidity and mortality in the United States today, and the rates have grown exponentially over the last few decades. There is a number of health related factors and behaviors that contribute to the onset of CVD and its contribution to other well-known diseases. Implementing appropriate life style changes, certain medications, and education can contribute to the early detection of CVD and can have the potential to modify or alter the course of this deadly disease. Kehler, Christensen, Risor, Lauritzen, and Christensen (2009), reported “that patients who had a discussion with their doctor about cardiovascular disease including information about the disease, knowledge about the disease, and perception of risk and prevention strategies indicated that they were able to incorporate healthy lifestyle changes into their diet”. Through education and recognition, healthcare providers can assist patients in achieving healthy lifestyles and initiate ways to decrease risk factors associated with CVD. The health promotion model (HPM) can be utilized to enhance patients’ awareness for prevention, intervention, and perception of risks related CVD. The contents included in this paper will discuss how CVD is defined medically and through patients’ perspectives; the prevalence of CVD in the United States; precipitating factors of CVD; vulnerable groups of CVD; and a theoretical framework of the HPM for CVD.

Literature Review Cardiovascular Disease
From a medical perspective CVD can be perceived as a continuum of a pathological process, in which the coronary arteries steadily harden and thicken with plaque which obstructs the blood flow. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (2013) states,
“Cardiovascular disease (CVD)…...

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