Malthus in Africa: Rwanda's Genocide Summary

In: Historical Events

Submitted By nhpatel25
Words 459
Pages 2
Nehal Patel
ENC 3310
Summary Project

Malthus in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide Summary Malthus in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide is an educative chapter written by Jared Diamond educating the reader that in the case of Rwanda’s collapse, the critical circumstances like lack of farming land, hunger, poverty, war, lack of natural resources etc. were caused by population pressure. Overpopulation being the major causes, it brings plenty of problems with it. Diamond starts off the chapter by talking about his family’s visit to East Africa where they saw overpopulated streets of poor people especially poor children at the side of the road begging for a pencil. Diamond talks about how “population problems such as those of East Africa are often referred to as Malthusian theory” which is population grows exponentially compare to food production increases arithmetically. (Diamond 312) Then, Diamond discusses about Rwanda’s people that was dominated by Hutus, principally farmers, and Tutsis who were minority. Both did not like each other and therefore; Hutus army with weapons started the killing of Tutsis and “within six weeks, an estimated 800,000 Tutsis, representing about three quarters of Tutsi population in Rwanda”. (Diamond 317) Later, Diamond presents many surveys, samples, statistics and examples such as, overpopulation in Kanama causing population consuming less than average daily required calories, to inform readers about different regions becoming the victims of population pressure. At the end of the chapter, Diamond thinks that overpopulation had immense influence on the Rwandan genocide, but he considers his argument as controversial. In order to prove his point, Diamond uses three counterarguments that critics might argue. First, he admits that some people might make an objection that his theory is naive; however he counter…...

Similar Documents


... Population Growth According to Thomas Malthus Throughout history, many people have made assumptions and expectations on population growth. Over the past two centuries, birthrates have dramatically increased; meanwhile death rates have significantly decreased. One influential person to discuss this phenomenon was Thomas Robert Malthus. According to Malthus, the population is growing much more rapidly than the resources available to the population. Throughout his six editions of An Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus explains his ideas about population growth, which he believes will eventually lead to famine, war, or other epidemics. On February 13, 1766, Thomas Robert Malthus was born to Daniel and Henrietta Malthus in Guildford, Surrey. His father Daniel was friends with philosophers David Hume and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and was in a prosperous family. He was home schooled at a young age, and then went on to attend the Dissenting Academy in Warrington before his acceptance to the Jesus College in Cambridge. At the Jesus College, Malthus majored in Mathematics but won many prizes in English declamation, along with other subjects. After earning his Masters Degree in 1791, he was elected as a fellow of Jesus College, taking orders and becoming an Anglican country parson. On April 12, 1804, Malthus married Harriet Eckersall; his first cousin once removed. Malthus and Eckersall had three children......

Words: 296 - Pages: 2


...glorimar c The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by the Hutu dominated government under the Hutu Power ideology. Over the course of approximately 100 days, or more, from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 500,000 people were killed, according to the estimate of Human Rights Watch.[1] Other estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[2] (a commonly quoted figure is 800,000), or as much as 20% of the total population of the country. In 1990 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group, composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda. The Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone nations of Africa and France itself,[3][4] and the RPF, with support from Uganda, vastly increased the ethnic tensions in the country and led to the rise of Hutu Power. As an ideology, Hutu Power asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave Hutus and thus must be resisted at all costs. Despite continuing ethnic strife, including the displacement of large numbers of Hutu in the north by the rebels and periodic localized extermination of Tutsi to the south, pressure on the government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 and the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords. The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 was the proximate cause of the mass...

Words: 322 - Pages: 2


...A Summary of the Rwandan Genocide Rwanda: A Brief History of the Country Rwanda’s population of more than 7 million people is divided into three ethnic groups: the Hutu (who made up roughly 85% of the population), the Tutsi (14%) and the Twa (1%). Prior to the colonial era, Tutsis generally occupied the higher strata in the social system and the Hutus the lower. However, social mobility was possible, a Hutu who acquired a large number of cattle or other wealth could be assimilated into the Tutsi group and impoverished Tutsi would be regarded as Hutu. A clan system also functioned, with the Tutsi clan known as the Nyinginya being the most powerful. Throughout the 1800s, the Nyingiya expanded their influence by conquest and by offering protection in return for tribute. Ethnic Conflict Begins The former colonial power, Germany, lost possession of Rwanda during the First World War and the territory was then placed under Belgian administration. In the late 1950’s during the great wave of decolonization, tensions increased in Rwanda. The Hutu political movement, which stood to gain from majority rule, was gaining momentum while segments of the Tutsi establishment resisted democratization and the loss of their acquired privileges. In November 1959, a violent incident sparked a Hutu uprising in which hundreds of Tutsi were killed and thousands displaced and forced to flee to neighboring countries. This marked the start of the so- called ‘Hutu Peasant Revolution’ or ‘social......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9


...Genocide Name: Course: Tutor: Date: Introduction The term genocide refers to the mass murder of a specific race or tribe or group of people with the sole intention of eliminating the said group. As the world came to realize with the discrimination of Jews by the Nazi forces, genocide does not sit on the same bench as other crimes such as burglary. The spirited effort towards the elimination of a single race or tribe is the driving force of this heinous crime. It is said “power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely”. At the centre of genocide, power and resources are usually the propagators of this vice. In a state in which the availability and distribution of resources is anything short of equal, negative ethnic traits such as tribalism, nepotism and even clanism, in other cases, can easily result in the onset of genocide. Greed is also a consistent feature of many genocide-stricken states. The more worrying issue, apart from the killing of millions of innocent civilians, is the prejudice with which many of the leaders of these factions plan and coordinate these atrocities. The notion that leaders are well above the law is characteristic of states that have felt the iron grip of genocide. The case of Darfur is one of the most disheartening. Darfur has been embroiled in the throes of genocide for the better part of the 21st Century. Having been the first genocide of the 21st Century, the mention of Darfur does not resonate well on the global landscape.......

Words: 2199 - Pages: 9

Thomas Malthus

...ESSAY: THOMAS MALTHUS Born: 13-Feb-1766 Birthplace: Rookery, near Dorking, Surrey, England Died: 29-Dec-1834 Location of death: St. Catherine, near Bath, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Bath Abbey, Bath, England Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Economist Nationality: England What many know, at least those with an elementary knowledge of economics or politics, is that Malthus is the surname of a man, who, a couple of hundred years back, said that man, sooner or later, universally, will run up against himself; that the population of mankind will eventually outstrip man's ability to supply himself with the necessities of life. The Malthusian doctrine, as stated in "Essay on the Principle of Population," was expressed as follows: "population increases in a geometric ratio, while the means of subsistence increases in an arithmetic ratio." Well, that seems plain enough, and perfectly understandable, if there is too many people and not enough food, then, certainly, there is going to be problems. Malthus developed his theory, at least to this extent: that left alone, no matter all the problems short of worldwide catastrophe, humankind will survive, as, nature has a natural way to cut population levels: "crime, disease, war, and vice," being, the necessary checks on population." This proposition, as was made by Malthus in 1798, was to cause quite a public stir, then, and yet today. The English economist Thomas Robert Malthus, b.......

Words: 4621 - Pages: 19

Rwanda Genocide

...Hutus meaning “servant” were becoming modern day servants (René, 2004).The existing government were in control of Tutsi people who first initiated internationally renowned genocide in 1972 (Linda, 2004).critiques claim that the genocide in 1994 that slaughter estimated 500000 people in Rwanda was mainly because the increased population density but the truth is the lack of communal tolerance and higher illiteracy rate The killings were engineered by the government. Government initiated nearly 30000 military soldiers with modern full automatic AK-47 machine guns to fuel the genocide in 1994(Diamond, 2005).” With the interahamwe ranks swelling to 30000 people it was virtually impossible for Tutsi civilians to resists or escape” (Gale, 2012).The social structure of the Rwandan’s land were of a vantage for Tutsi people to exploit their power but what happened in Rwanda is something we have seen through the world. Personally I think that Hutu people’s patient were becoming the fuel for their anger against Tutsi people who had been exploiting Hutu people ever since. Look around the world and examine every possible Genocide we encounter is a result of payback from the exploited group. Despite the fact that human rights was not yet recognized in Rwanda countries like china and Austria were indirectly fueling Rwanda’s ongoing injustice (Kohen et al, 2011). In the modern day we live in our media plays a crucial role in delivering the news to the local. Our world has become very......

Words: 723 - Pages: 3

Rwandan Genocide

...16690 – Africa Research Bulletin National Security Nigerian-owned Dolphin Drilling, forty miles offshore. They were kidnapped by youths of the Bilabiri kingdom who accuse the company of refusing to negotiate on a range of issues. On June 6th, five Nigerian soldiers were killed in a raid on an oil field and five South Koreans were kidnapped. The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) said they might swap the hostages for a fellow activist and leader of the Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF), Mujahid Dokubo-Asari, who the government refuses to release on bail. Again, the hostages were released two days later. On June 20th, two Filipinos were kidnapped and again released. In the first half of 2006, an average of more than four hostages has been seized monthly in the Niger Delta, an unprecedented rate of kidnappings since the first stirrings of violent protest in the early 1990s in the region that produces most of Nigeria’s oil. The two Filipino hostages brought to 29 the number of oil workers seized and released since January in the increasingly volatile region. Armed and equipped with speedboats, militants operating by surprise have blown up pipelines and installations and seized foreign oil workers in the last months before retreating into the maze of creeks and rivers that make up the 70,000 sq km delta. Nearly all onshore operations to the west of the Delta, one half of the entire oil region, have been shut down. The attacks have cut Nigeria’s......

Words: 2288 - Pages: 10

Genocide in Rwanda

...HOTEL RWANDA RWANDA GENOCIDE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES IN CONGO By GRADI MUYEMBI KAYEMBE Fall 2014 Preface Our century has been portrayed by many issues that are not example for the next generation, but this is not the reason why we should cut off the history to the next generation. The reason why I decided to write about this topic is to share with you about what really happen and what is happening in Africa that people in the USA don't know. I signed for this class because I thought that it would be interesting to share the issues that other people are facing in world and particularly in the Congo where I am from. I don't have the full accuracy of everything written in this essay but I will share some researches that other people did through the issues and my own experience through the issues. Introduction Genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. The term Genocide has been defined by many people through out the 20 th century, but the UN defined it in 1946 after the holocaust as: A denial of the right of existence of entire human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live of individual human beings; such denial of the right of existence shocks the conscience of mankind, and is contrary to moral law and to the spirit and aims of the United Nations. The General Assembly, therefore, affirms that genocide is a crime under international law whether the crime is committed on......

Words: 3646 - Pages: 15


...Introduction There is an extensive history of ethnic tension between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda. The conflict and animosity between the two tribes ultimately led to the loss of over one million lives during the 1994 genocide. Michael Newdow made the following remarks concerning the cause of genocide: “People don't simply wake up one day and commit genocide. They start by setting themselves apart from others, diminishing the stature of those adhering to dissenting beliefs in small, insidious steps. They begin by saying, 'We're the righteous, and we'll tolerate those others.' And as the toleration diminishes over time, the inevitable harms are overlooked. It is for that reason that James Madison wisely wrote that 'it is proper to take alarm at the first experiment on our liberties'." (Michael Newdow 1) It is widely believed and stated that the 1994 Rwanda Genocide was started by the assassination of Hutu President Juvenal Habyarimana. However, the divide cause by the colonization and influence of Belgium can be seen as the underlying cause of genocide in Rowanda. Body When Rowanda was awarded to Belgium after World War, part of German’s territory that was never a part of the Kingodm of Rwanda, was stripped and attached to Tanganyika. This forced people to live amongst tribes they were unfamiliar with. Still, the Tutsi power structure for administering the country remained in place. The government also provided the......

Words: 842 - Pages: 4


...1. The Implausibility of Genocide Prevention That hatred soon leads to genocide. ... Lastly, Genocide cannot be prevented because the guarantee that everyone is not going to turn against the agreement to prevent future genocide is an unrealistic belief. ... Some may understand how one could disagree, arguing that genocide could be prevented. ... In conclusion, Genocide cannot be prevented. ... Therefore ge... Word Count: 1618 Approx Pages: 6  2. Rwanda RWANDARwanda: Genocide or Civil War? ... Unfortunately, it has happened, but do the conditions and outcomes warrant using the term genocide? ... The Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide hammered out the statutes concerning genocide, which went into force January 12, 1951. ... There have been several ... Word Count: 898 Approx Pages: 4 Has Bibliography  3. Genocide Genocide will occur in the FutureMass genocides have taken place during the Holocaust, the Killing Fields, and Rwanda and many other tragic events. ... All of these genocides have occurred due to the failure of the international community. ... Did the United Nations stop this genocide? ... What happens when the threats of genocide come at their fingertips? &#... Word Count: 1647 Approx Pages: 7  4. Fighting to Stop Genocide This lasted about thirty years until the next large scale genocide in 1975, this is when the Cambodian genocide began. ... Genocide affects everyone, and it's best that......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Rwandan Genocide

...Rwandan Genocide: Reasons for the non-intervention by the United States. ´´ In their greatest hour of need, the world failed the people of Rwanda.´´ - Kofi Annan RESIT By: Amber Vos S2380285 Lecturer: Miss Justine Jones Group 3 Word Count: 2639 Table of Content Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The legacy of Somalia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Lack of National Support . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The role of the media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Introduction On April the 6th 1994, the Hutu population of Rwanda attacked the Tutsi minority. In the short period of hundred days approximately 800,000 Rwandans, mostly Tutsi’s, were killed. Even the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide which......

Words: 3183 - Pages: 13


...Genocide Foundations Name Institution Affiliation Date Genocide Foundations Introduction Over the years, genocide studies receive positive and negative influences from both the cultural and political contexts. The two contexts have extensively influenced the view of genocide. The major view of genocide is that it is a domestic occurrence of states. On a literal perspective, various authors have contributed to the subject of genocide. The assignment looks to extensively explore the foundations of genocide based on book reviews. The paper will provide an in-depth analysis and reviews of three books on genocide, What is Genocide by Martin Shaw, Centuries of Genocide by Totten and On the nature of genocidal intent by Campbell. Shaw, M. (2007). What is Genocide? Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN: 0745631827. Martin Shaw’s takes up the subject of defining genocide in all contexts. Through the book, What is Genocide, Shaw seeks to address two major issues related to genocide definition. • Unchanging definition of genocide • Reasons and need for changing definition of genocide Modern comprehension of the genocide ideology arises from a historical and contemporary viewpoint. It is evident over the years that the definition of genocide has undergone minimal change. In the book, the author offers key reasons for the unchanging definition of genocide while at the same time offering major......

Words: 3101 - Pages: 13

Rwanada Genocide

...The Rwanda Genocide Throughout history groups of people have tried to eliminate other groups for various reasons, but these attempts have been marked by the human race's refusal to allow such systematic extermination to occur. Unfortunately in 1994 the global community collectively turned a blind eye toward the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of innocent people. The Rwandan Genocide revealed the governments of the world's ignorance and apathy, as well as their continuing selfishness and refusal to take blame. The killings were an attempt by a radical splinter, the Hutu Power, of the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, to eliminate a small minority, the Tutsis. The beginning of the genocide is usually traced to April 6, 1994 when a plane crashed with Rwanda's president, Juvenal Habyarimanya on board. However, roots the genocide were established much earlier; the Hutu Power militia was being armed and trained for months before. Their intention was known to all; the Hutus had announced, over the radio and through various other channels, that they were going to exterminate the Tutsis. Within hours of the crash barricades had been set up around the capital. Anyone passing through was required to show identification papers, and all Tutsis were killed on the spot. Soon killings were occurring all over the country and the Tutsis were not the only victims, lists of moderate Hutus had been drawn up, and the people on that list were killed as well. Other Hutus who would not......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Rwanda Genocide

...This essay seeks to discuss the major factors that led to intra-state conflict in Rwanda that ultimately resulted in the April 1994 genocide. My discussion will start by giving a historical background to the nature of relations that existed between the two ethnic groups during the colonial era. It is during this era that seeds of hate between the two ethnic groups were perpetrated. My discussion will then focus on how events in the post-colonial era unfolded resulting in the genocide activities. Before going into the detailed discussion, there is need to define the terms intra-state conflict and genocide. Intra-state conflict is the occurrence of armed conflict within rather than between states. These conflicts involve ethnic or religious groups fighting against each other or against the government to secure autonomy, independence or well-being. Intra-state conflicts are therefore mostly referred to as ethnic or civil conflicts. These conflicts usually break out when one group-ethnic, religious or social feels disadvantaged or exploited by another group in the same state and tries to change that through violence. According to Aldelman (2005), the Rwanda 1994 genocide was the most appalling case of mass murder the world has witnessed since the Second World War. The genocide resulted from the deliberate choice of a modern elite to foster hatred and fear to keep itself in power. According to Shah, (2006), this was a case of the majority Hutu who comprised 85% of the population......

Words: 2009 - Pages: 9

Rwanda Genocide

...Analyse the causes of the Rwandan genocide Genocide has been seen as one of the worst moral crimes in the world. In this essay I will be analysing the causes of the Rwandan genocide by taking into account factors such as the history of Rwanda, the environmental, cultural, political and the role of the media and how they contributed to the mass killings of the Rwandan population. Raphael Lemkin has defined genocide as the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group. Moreover the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide has stated that acts such as intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group all account for genocidal acts. In 1994 Rwanda witnessed the unleashing of the genocide of the Tutsi by the ruling Hutu led government. It had been stated that Rwanda erupted into one of the most appalling cases of mass murder the world has witnessed since the Second World War. From 1894 until the end of World War 1, Rwanda was part of German East Africa. An estimation of half a million people was killed. The killings in Rwanda fell into three categories; combatants killing combatants, Hutu citizens, parliamentary and military forces killing Hutu citizens because the victims were either moderate or were willing to live and work with Tutsi and the Hutu killing Tutsi because they were Tutsi. The population of Rwanda is made up of three ethnic groups. One percent of the population are Twa (pigmy......

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6

Malerei & Kalligraphie | Karl Lagerfeld Classic XXL 150 ml (keine 125 ml oder 100ml) Eau de Toilette EDT | 434 مسلسلات عربية مسلسل الفرصة الاخيرة الحلقة 17 السابعة عشر مشاهدة وتحميل الحلقة 17 السابعة عشر من مسلسل الفرصة الأخيرة 2018 بطولة محمد الأحمد و دارين حمزة بجودة HD الحلقة...