Management Moscow

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ekaterinan
Words 6130
Pages 25
ГЛАВА 1. Теоритические основы управления инновационными процессами в малом и венчурном бизнесе.

1.1. Управление инновационными процессами: содержание, сущность и фазы.

Инновации и инновационный процесс.
Слово «инновация» переводится на русский язык как «новизна», «новшество», «нововведение». В менеджменте под инновацией понимается новшество, освоенное в производстве и нашедшее своего потребителя.
Инновация – это конечный результат деятельности по проведению нововведений, получивший воплощение в виде нового или усовершенствованного продукта, внедренного на рынке, нового или усовершенствованного процесса, используемого в организационной деятельности, нового подхода к социальным проблемам.
Здесь следует обратить внимание на широкое толкование понятия инновация – это может быть новый продукт, новый технологический процесс, новая структура и система управления организацией, новая культура, новая информация и т.д.
Под инновацией в 19 в. Понимали прежде всего введение элементов одной культуры – в другую. В 20 в. Инновациями считали технические усовершенствования. Й. Шумпетер еще в начале века понял роль инновации как средства для преодоления экономических спадов. Он указал, что источником прибылей могут быть не только манипуляции с ценами и снижение себестоимости, но и смена выпускаемой продукции.
В своей работе «Теория экономического развития» Шумпетер писал: «Под предприятием мы понимаем осуществление новых комбинаций, а также то, в чем эти комбинации воплощаются: заводы и т.п. Предпринимателями же мы называем хозяйственных субъектов, функцией которых является как раз осуществление новых комбинаций и которые выступают как его активный элемент».
Понятие «осуществление новых комбинаций» охватывает по Шумпетеру следующие пять случаев: 1. Изготовление нового, то есть еще не известного потребителям блага или создание нового качества того или иного…...

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