Marine Fungi; a Review

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Marine Mycology: An Overview of Pathogens, and Secondary Metabolites
Introduction and History The golden age of marine mycology occurred from 1960-1990 with the research and discovery of most of the roughly 500 species of obligate marine fungi. Much of said research was conducted from 1980-2000; this 30 year period saw the report of nearly half of the marine fungal species currently known (Jones et al. 2009; Jones, 2011). That being said, marine fungi are vastly understudied and under rated in comparison to marine plants, animals, and other microorganisms; frequently they are omitted or only briefly referenced in marine biodiversity and ecology text books (Jones and Pang, 2012). The cladistics of marine fungi is currently in a state of flux, with new taxa being discovered as molecular techniques such as DNA and RNA analysis via polymerase chain reactions, and gel electrophoresis are implemented (Ald et al 2005). Even though fungus-like organisms such as oomycetes are not fungi, marine mycologists often study them as they perform similar functions, and until recently most had been classified as fungi based on their morphological similarities (Jones, 2011). These fungus-like organisms are eukaryotic, heterotrophic, zoospores, have chitin containing cell walls, and similar life cycles to fungi (Neuhauser et al. 2012). Conventionally terrestrial or freshwater species are also included in the marine fungal group as facultative species; this is due to their active ecological role in the marine, and estuarine environment. Here is broad, but accepted definition for obligate, and facultative marine fungi from Kohlmeyer, 1979 "obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine or estuarine (brackish water) habitat; facultative marine are fungi from freshwater or terrestrial areas able to grow also in the natural marine environment". Due to…...

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