Microprocessor

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By bhargav619
Words 1249
Pages 5
Introduction to Microprocessor
A microprocessor is a single chip integrating all the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. It includes all the logical functions, data storage, timing functions and interaction with other peripheral devices. In some cases, the terms 'CPU' and 'microprocessor' are used interchangeably to denote the same device. Like every genuine engineering marvel, the microprocessor too has evolved through a series of improvements throughout the 20th century. A brief history of the device along with its functioning is described below.

Its Working

It is the central processing unit which coordinates all the functions of a computer. It generates timing signals, sends and receives data to and from every peripheral used inside or outside the computer. The commands required to do this are fed into the device in the form of current variations which are converted into meaningful instructions by the use of a Boolean Logic System. It divides its functions in two categories, logical functions and processing

functions. The arithmetic and logical unit and the control unit handle these functions respectively. The information is communicated through a bunch of wires called buses. The address bus carries the 'address' of the location with which communication is desired while the data bus carries the data that is being exchanged. Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU) This part of the central processing unit deals with operations such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication of integers and Boolean operations. It receives control signals from the control unit telling it to carry out these operations. Control Unit (CU) This controls the movement of instructions in and out of the processor, and also controls the operation of the ALU. It consists of a decoder, control logic circuits, and a clock to ensure everything happens at the correct…...

Similar Documents

Microprocessor Wars

...Microprocessor Wars Samuel W. Aldrich Principles of Marketing Tracy Foote July 3rd, 2012 Microprocessor Wars Computer processors are very complicated electronic devices that are used to be the brain of computers. They process all data in the computer and have revolutionized the world in every facet possible, creating new and quicker ways to accomplish tasks. There are a few companies that produce the x86 microarchitecture chips found in almost every desktop and many mobile devices today but only two are true heavy hitters in the market, Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The market slug fest that has been happening between these two companies have driven the pace at which computing has advanced by leaps and bounds. They are a perfect example of how competition and not just supply and demand push industries to their pinnacle. To give a little background to the current market situation, Intel was the original inventor of the x86 microarchitecture central processing unit in 1978. Advanced Micro Devices didn’t start making chips until 1982; four years after Intel had already released their first x86 microprocessor chip as a company. Advanced Micro Devices along with Intel has over 99.5% of the market for x86 architecture central processing units. This means the two companies quite literally own the market and control the supply of computer processors. MaximumPC.com’s own history of the situation that expertly describes the beginnings and even reciprocal......

Words: 1792 - Pages: 8

80386 Microprocessor

...80386 MICROPROCESSOR It is a 32-bit microprocessor. It has 32 bit data bus and 32 bit address bus, so it can address up to 232 = 4GB of RAM. Features -Multitasking -Memory management -Software protection -Segmentation and paging -Large memory system(64Tbytes in virtual mode) Operating modes -Real mode -Protected mode -Virtual mode Internal architecture: There are 6 parallel functional units: -The bus unit: The bus interface unit provides a 32-bit data bus, a 32-bit address bus and control signals. 8-bit (byte), 16-bit (word) and 32-bit (double word) data transfers are supported. It has separate pins for its address and data bus lines. This processing unit contains the latches and drivers for the address bus, transceivers for the data bus, and control logic for signaling whether a memory input/output, or interrupt acknowledgement bus cycle is to be performed. -The prefetch unit: The prefetch unit performs a mechanism known as an instruction stream queue. This queue permits a prefetch up to 16 bytes (8 memory words) of instruction code which is used by the instruction decoder. Whenever bytes are loaded into the queue they are automatically shifted up through the FIFO to the empty location near the output. -The decode unit: It reads the machine-code instructions from the output side of the prefetch queue and decodes them into microcode instruction......

Words: 4779 - Pages: 20

Microprocessor

... 1. Data Representation and Number Systems 1.0 Introduction. All data in a digital computer is stored as electronic signals, either voltages or currents. These electronic signals are used to represent other data types such as numbers or letters or other items. In most digital computers systems the electronic signals can only handle two signal levels represented by a digit 0 and a digit 1, namely high or low. These values are also known as, 1 or 0, ON or OFF, SET or RESET or TRUE or FALSE. 1.1 Digital signals. A microprocessor system operates on digital signals. Digital signals are represented by two discrete voltage levels or states which are often known as either ‘high’ (5 V) or ‘low’ (0 V) with respect to each other. The high state is often known as a logic one ( 1) and the low known as a logic ( 0 ). 1.2 Data transmission. The bus in a microprocessor system transmit data in parallel form. [pic] Figure : 1 Data can also be transmitted in serial form [pic] Figure : 2 1. Decimal Number In everyday situations, a system of counting using a base of ten is employed. This is known as a decimal system, and its main justification for use is often quoted as being that human beings have ten fingers with which to count. A decimal number is composed of one or more digits chosen from a set of ten digits {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} Base number is 10. The weights are all multiples of 10. Example: 3 5 7 ----- digits 102 101 ......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Ibm Power6 Microprocessor (64 Bit)

...IBM POWER6 Microprocessor (64 bit) Term Paper: ECE312 Rahul Sihag Section: K2103, Roll no: B26 B Tech CSE Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab, India rahulsihagg@gmail.com Abstract— This term paper is about IBM POWER6 Microprocessors. It covers Introduction, Core chapters including definition, description, history, design etc. It also includes their Applications, Future perspective and Conclusion etc. Index Terms— Introduction, Core chapters, Applications & Future perspective, Conclusion. I. INTRODUCTION A. Microprocessors A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Intel introduced its first 4-bit microprocessor 4004 in 1971 and its 8-bit microprocessor 8008 in 1972. B. IBM POWER6 Microprocessors The POWER6 is a microprocessor developed by IBM that implemented the Power ISA v.2.03. When it became available in systems in 2007, it succeeded the POWER5+ as IBM's flagship Power microprocessor. The POWER6 processor is the latest generation in the POWER line of PowerPC......

Words: 3085 - Pages: 13

Microprocessor

...[TERM PAPER ON FILE SYSTEMS] | Detailed study and comparison of various file systems including FAT,NTFS ,RAID and EXT | ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my teacher for assigning me the topic ( Comparison of various File Systems) . I would also like to thank for providing me with the necessary details which were required for the completion of the term paper. I would also like to thank my friends for helping me with this term paper. I thank you all. CONTENT * INTRODUCTION * FILE ALLOCATION TABLE * fat * vfat * fat12 * fat16 * fat32 * fdt * NEW TECHONOLOGY FILE SYSTEM * ntfs * hpfs * ntfs 5.0 * mft * REDUNDANT ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT DISKS * raid * raid 0 * raid 1 * raid 3 * raid 5 * raid 10 * raid 30 and 50 * EXTENDED FILE SYSTEM * -ext 2 * -ext 3 * -linux swap * CONCLUSION * REFERENCES File System Definition: Computers use particular kinds of file systems to store and organize data on media, such as a hard drive, the CDs, DVDs, and BDs in an optical drive or on a flash drive. Any place that a PC stores data is employing the use of some type of file system. A file system can be thought of as an index or database containing the physical location of every piece of data on a hard drive. A file system is setup on a drive during a......

Words: 14273 - Pages: 58

Intel Pentium Microprocessor Flaw

...Pentium Microprocessor Flaw NT1110 19 October, 2013 Pentium Microprocessor Flaw Pentium microprocessor flaw was in the floating-point math subsection. The flaw was found where the division result returned by the Pentium microprocessor was off by approximately sixty-one parts per million. Once Intel pinpointed the flaw, their solution was to keep the information within the company and not disclose the information to the public. Regardless of the fact that the flaw did not affect all microprocessors, it actually only affected a very small number of customers, Intel should have openly acknowledged the problem. When customers would call into Intel with issues concerning the flaw, Intel would input a certain code into it in order to verify that was in fact the problem. Once the problem was identified, Intel then would implement a solution. However, if Intel had openly accepted and informed the clients about the issue, it most likely would have saved them not only money but also their reputation between the company and their existing clients. Needless to say, their decision resulted in some very unhappy customers. If this same type of flaw was to be found in a new CPU today, the company would surely fail. With a problem in the floating-point math subsection with an error of approximately sixty-one parts per million, this would cause too many problems for the clients today. Especially considering that Intel declined the opportunity to inform their customers and supply a......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Microprocessor Flaw

...“In June 1994, Intel engineers discovered a flaw in the floating-point math subsection of the Pentium microprocessor. Under certain data dependent conditions, low order bits of the result of floating-point division operations would be incorrect, an error that can quickly compound in floating-point operations to much larger errors in subsequent calculations. Intel corrected the error in a future chip revision, but nonetheless declined to disclose it. In October 1994, Dr. Thomas Nicely, Professor of Mathematics at Lynchburg College independently discovered the bug, and upon receiving no response from his inquiry to Intel, on October 30 posted a message on the InternetWord of the bug spread quickly on the Internet and then to the industry press. Because the bug was easy to replicate by an average user (there was a sequence of numbers one could enter into the OS calculator to show the error), Intel's statements that it was minor and "not even an erratum" were not accepted by many computer users. During Thanksgiving 1994, The New York Times ran a piece by journalist John Markoff spotlighting the error. Intel changed its position and offered to replace every chip, quickly putting in place a large end-user support organization. This resulted in a $500 million charge against Intel's 1994 revenue. Ironically, the "Pentium flaw" incident, Intel's response to it, and the surrounding media coverage propelled Intel from being a technology supplier generally unknown to most computer......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Term Paper on Microprocessor Systems

...******************** ********************************** Term Paper On discipline “Microprocessor Systems” Done by ***** Student of ******** Checked by ********* Task Design MP System, based on single-chip 8-bit microprocessor KR580VM80AOA with the following characteristics: 1. CPU: KR580VM80A0A. 2. RAM: 24 KBytes 3. ROM: 40 KBytes 4. Controlling for parity. 5. Number of digital inputs: 8. 6. Number of digital outputs: 8. 7. Interrupt controller, with a fixed order of service. 8. DMA channel. 9. Serial channel. 10. Timer / counter. Content Introduction 1. The description of applied elements 2.1 Microprocessor KR580VM80A 2.2 Oscillator of clock pulses KP580ГФ2 2.3 Control unit of interruptions KP580BH5 2.4 System control unit KR580VK28 2.5 Programmed consecutive interface KR580VV51 2.6 Control unit of the keyboard and display KR580VV79 2.7 Microcircuit of random-access memory K537PУ17 2.8 Microcircuit of ROM K573PФ6 2.9 Microcircuit of decoder K155ID3 2.10 Microcircuit K514ИД2 2.11 Buffer register 1533АП5 2. Calculation part 3.12 Calculation and planning of address space of memory 3.13 Construction of circuit designs of decoding of addresses of memory 3.14 Calculation and planning address for input-output devices 3.15 Construction of circuit designs of decoding......

Words: 3184 - Pages: 13

Microprocessor Slides Vhdl

...ECE-362 Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 1 Introduction to VHDL Introductory Concepts Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? In0 0 yOut In1 1 select Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? In0 0 yOut In1 1 select = 0 Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? In0 0 yOut In1 1 select = 0 Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Microprocessor

...applications, however I chose to research both topics so it can help myself get a better understanding about microcontrollers. James Pearson ET355PMicroprocessors | “The microprocessor, also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU), is the brain of all computers and many household and electronic devices. Multiple microprocessors, working together, are the "hearts" of datacenters, super-computers, communications products, and other digital devices. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. The 4004 was not very powerful; it was primarily used to perform simple mathematical operations in a calculator called “Busicom.” Just like microwaves or telephones, devices with microprocessors have become so integrated into our daily lives, that we cannot imagine a life without them. It’s sometimes hard to believe that only 60 years ago, computers were rare and were not available for the wider public. It wasn't until the '80s that computers entered our homes and - thanks to the microprocessor - really made an impact on the average person's life. Nowadays, modern microprocessors can perform extremely sophisticated operations in areas such as meteorology, aviation, nuclear physics and engineering, and take up much less space as well as delivering superior performance. Over the past 40 years, microprocessors have become faster and more powerful, yet increasingly smaller and more affordable. The manufacturing of a CPU is a highly complex and demanding process......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Ecet 340 (Microprocessor Interfacing with Lab) Entire Course

...ECET 340 (Microprocessor Interfacing with Lab) Entire Course http://hwguiders.com/downloads/ecet-340-microprocessor-interfacing-lab-entire-course/ ECET 340 Week 1 HomeWork 1 ECET 340 Week 1 iLab 1 ECET 340 Week 2 HomeWork 2 ECET 340 Week 2 iLab 2 ECET 340 Week 3 HomeWork 3 ECET 340 Week 3 iLab 3 ECET 340 Week 4 HomeWork 4 ECET 340 Week 4 iLab 4 ECET 340 Week 5 HomeWork 5 ECET 340 Week 5 iLab 5 ECET 340 Week 6 HomeWork 6 ECET 340 Week 6 iLab 6 ECET 340 Week 7 HomeWork 7 ECET 340 Week 7 iLab 7 ECET 340 (Microprocessor Interfacing with Lab) Entire Course http://hwguiders.com/downloads/ecet-340-microprocessor-interfacing-lab-entire-course/ ECET 340 Week 1 HomeWork 1 ECET 340 Week 1 iLab 1 ECET 340 Week 2 HomeWork 2 ECET 340 Week 2 iLab 2 ECET 340 Week 3 HomeWork 3 ECET 340 Week 3 iLab 3 ECET 340 Week 4 HomeWork 4 ECET 340 Week 4 iLab 4 ECET 340 Week 5 HomeWork 5 ECET 340 Week 5 iLab 5 ECET 340 Week 6 HomeWork 6 ECET 340 Week 6 iLab 6 ECET 340 Week 7 HomeWork 7 ECET 340 Week 7 iLab 7 ECET 340 (Microprocessor Interfacing with Lab) Entire Course http://hwguiders.com/downloads/ecet-340-microprocessor-interfacing-lab-entire-course/ ECET 340 Week 1 HomeWork 1 ECET 340 Week 1 iLab 1 ECET 340 Week 2 HomeWork 2 ECET 340 Week 2 iLab 2 ECET 340 Week 3 HomeWork 3 ECET 340 Week 3 iLab 3 ECET 340 Week 4 HomeWork 4 ECET 340 Week 4 iLab 4 ECET 340 Week 5 HomeWork 5 ECET 340 Week 5 iLab 5 ECET 340 Week 6 HomeWork 6 ECET 340 Week 6 iLab......

Words: 2987 - Pages: 12

Intel and the Microprocessor

...Term Paper: History of Intel and its microprocessors The microprocessor is a chip made of silicon that holds a central processing unit. Both the term’s central processing unit or CPU and microprocessor can be used and mean the same thing. The human brain has been compared to a microprocessor. Microprocessors are ultra fast calculators and what makes a microprocessor appear intelligent is the speed at which it can process data. The electronics industry names, microprocessors first by makers name and then model family name or number. A recent example, are the Intel Core i7 and AMD FX 8 Core Black Edition. Microprocessors provides scientist, engineers, architects, graphic designers, researchers, and other professionals with the processing power users to perform all the many functions needed to do their jobs and make new discoveries and explore what before could not have been even imagined. The history of microprocessors will be covered; this includes the history of Intel Corporation, important highlights in the development of the microprocessor. All digital computers use electronic switches. These switches represent binary digits or bits. The first computers used vacuum tubes as switches to represent on-or-off binary data, but vacuum tubes had many problems. Without the invention of the transistor, microprocessors and the modern computer would not be possible. Bell Laboratory engineers John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the transistor in 1947 (transistor).......

Words: 1753 - Pages: 8

Modelling of Modern Microprocessors

...Modelling Of Modern Microprocessors Siddhant (Author) Department of Computer Science Lovely Professional University Phagwara, India siddhant_s@outlook.com Abstract--Microprocessors are also known as a CPU or central processing unit is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. This paper covers the evolution in microprocessors and the changes in the architecture of the microprocessor, the details of the latest microprocessors and the machines using them. The paper also discusses how the number of transistors affects the performance of processor.   A microprocessor can move data from one memory location to another. A microprocessor can make decisions and jump to a new set of instructions based on those decisions. The native language of a microprocessor is Assembly Language. The above mentioned are the three basic activities of a microprocessor. An extremely simple microprocessor capable of performing the above mentioned operations loos like: Index terms—Modern, architecture, Intel, PC, Apple. I. INTRODUCTION The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer, whether it is a desktop machine , a server or a laptop . The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982).The microprocessor is made up of transistors. CHIPA......

Words: 1808 - Pages: 8

Evolution of Microprocessor

...Microprocessor Evolution: 4004 to Pentium-4 Joel Emer Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Based on the material prepared by Krste Asanovic and Arvind November 2, 2005 First Microprocessor Intel 4004, 1971 Image removed due to copyright restrictions. To view image, visit http://news.com.com/Images+Moores+L aw+turns+40/2009-1041_3-56490195.html November 2, 2005 6.823 L15- 2 Emer • 4-bit accumulator architecture • 8µm pMOS • 2,300 transistors • 3 x 4 mm2 • 750kHz clock • 8-16 cycles/inst. 6.823 L15- 3 Emer Microprocessors in the Seventies Initial target was embedded control • First micro, 4-bit 4004 from Intel, designed for a desktop printing calculator Constrained by what could fit on single chip • Single accumulator architectures 8-bit micros used in hobbyist personal computers • Micral, Altair, TRS-80, Apple-II Little impact on conventional computer market until VISICALC spreadsheet for Apple-II (6502, 1MHz) • First “killer” business application for personal computers November 2, 2005 6.823 L15- 4 Emer DRAM in the Seventies Dramatic progress in MOSFET memory technology 1970, Intel introduces first DRAM (1Kbit 1103) 1979, Fujitsu introduces 64Kbit DRAM => By mid-Seventies, obvious that PCs would soon have > 64KBytes physical memory November 2, 2005 Microprocessor Evolution 6.823 L15- 5 Emer Rapid......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

...5D6H = 150AH 20000H + 12FFH = 212FFH FFFFH + 2222H = 12221H 21-Answer the following: How many nibbles are 16 bits? 4 How many bytes are 32 bits? 4 If a word is defined in 16 bits, how many words is a 64-bit data item? 4 What is the exact value (in decimal) of 1 meg? 1,000,000 How many kilobytes is 1 meg? 1,000 What is the exact value (in decimal) of 1 gigabyte? 1,000,000,000 How many kilobytes is 1 gigabyte? 1,048,576 How many megs is 1 gigabyte? 1,024 If a given computer has a total of 8 megabytes of memory, how many bytes (in decimal) is this? 8388608 How many kilobytes is this? 8,192 Chapter 1 1-True or false. A general purpose microprocessor has on-chip ROM? False 2-True or false. A microprocessor has on-chip ROM? True 3-True or false. A microprocessor has on-chip I/O ports? True 4-True or false. A microprocessor has a fixed amount of RAM on the chip? True Chapter 2 1-In the 8051, looping action with the instruction “DJNZ Rx, rel address” is limited to 256 iterations. 2-If a conditional jump is not taken, what is the next instruction to be executed? The instruction following the jump. 3-In calculating the target address for a jump, a displacement is added to the contents of register PC....

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Ark of Abel | Mediamonkey Gold 4.0.0.1371 | Anakartlar