Montgomery Bus Boycott

In: Historical Events

Submitted By 73827ab
Words 605
Pages 3
“Assess the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott in the struggle for civil rights in the USA”
In the southern society pre-1955 black Americans where thought of as second class citizens. Southern states had white only restaurants, white only rest zones in bus centres, water fountains etc. in the south of America is was common that buses were segregated, with specific areas on a bus reserved for white customers and other seats for black customers. The Civil Rights Movement is often said to have started with the actions of Rosa Parks from Montgomery, Alabama, in December 1955. Rosa Parks was a civil rights activist who protested against Montgomery’s racially segregated buses. She protested by refusing to give up her seat on a bus to white American man, “she decided on that day she wasn’t going to move. There was no assault” , this resulted in Rosa Parks getting arrested for breaking the Montgomery Bus Segregation Laws. It was said that Rosa Parks reaction after a hard day’s work and was not pre-planned. But evidence suggest that the Bus Boycott had been a while in the planning . After Rosa Parks arrest all black Americans stayed off the buses for a total of 382 days which caused the bus company to lose 65 percent of its income leading to great economic pressure. This led to the community organising a car pool which carried many of the passengers the buses would have carried, this showed great community spirit and how powerful people working together could be.
Following the events on December 21st 1965 the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association) decided that the best way to overcome segregation and generate publicity towards the civil rights campaign was to boycott the buses. The MIA was set up by Jo Ann Robinson of the Women’s League and E.D Nixon of the NAACP which lead the Boycott Of the buses but continued with peaceful protests despite the harassment from…...

Similar Documents

Montgomery Bus Boycott

...How significant was the Montgomery Bus Boycott in advancing the civil rights movement? The Montgomery bus boycott of December 1955 influenced a continuous boycott that inspired many individuals and groups to stand up against public transport segregation in order to quicken the pace, and also the likelihood of bus boycotts having a strong impact on the advancement of the civil rights movement. Rosa Parks was the main culprit behind the boycott as it was her decision to refuse to move seats after requested by the driver several times. However, as she evidently declined, it created an uproar of boycotts, and others began to see how blatant discrimination and racism against black Americans was becoming too extreme, and in some cases unnecessary. Following this, the appointment of Martin Luther King, Jr. to be the head of the Montgomery Improvement Association helped the boycott last for almost an entire year; the success shown by the supreme court order to desegregate buses. The Montgomery bus boycott is a very significant piece of history regarding the advancement the civil rights movement, and rightly so because it acted as the paving stone for further boycotts and other methods of protest, such as sit-ins and freedom rides. As the boycott was very successful, and raised a lot of public awareness surrounding the reality of racism and segregation; It encouraged other people (black and white) to stand up for what they believe in, and fight against the increased levels of......

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

...The Montgomery Bus Boycott ’’Change does not roll in on the wheels of inevitability, but comes through continuous struggle. And so we must straighten our backs and work for our freedom. A man can't ride you unless your back is bent’’ Martin Luther King All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1. of the (1948) Universal Declaration of Human Rights) The Montgomery Bus Boycott officially started on December 1, 1955. That was the day when the blacks of Montgomery, Alabama, decided that they would boycott the city buses until they could sit anywhere they wanted, instead of being relegated to the back when a white boarded. 1.) The story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott is often told as a simple, happy tale of the "little people" triumphing over the seemingly/apparently unbeatable forces of evil. The truth is a little bit different and a little more complex. "The movement started on the day in 1943 when a black seamstress named Rosa Parks paid her bus fare and then watched the bus drive off as she tried to re-enter through the rear door, as the driver had told her to do. When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her away, she recalled that she asked, "Why do you push us around?" She remembered him saying, "I don't know,...

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Montgomery Bus Boycott

...The Montgomery bus boycott changed the way people lived and reacted to each other. The American civil rights movement began a long time ago, as early as the seventeenth century, with blacks and whites all protesting slavery together. The peak of the civil rights movement came in the 1950's starting with the successful bus boycott in Montgomery Alabama. The civil rights movement was lead by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who preached nonviolence and love for your enemy."Love your enemies, we do not mean to love them as a friend or intimate. We mean what the Greeks called agape-a disinterested love for all mankind. This love is our regulating ideal and beloved community our ultimate goal. As we struggle here in Montgomery, we are cognizant that we have cosmic companionship and that the universe bends toward justice. We are moving from the black night of segregation to the bright daybreak of joy, from the midnight of Egyptian captivity to the glittering light of Canaan freedom" explained Dr. King. In the Cradle of the Confederacy, life for the white and the colored citizens was completely segregated. Segregated schools, restaurants, public water fountains, amusement parks, and city buses were part of everyday life in Montgomery, Alabama “Every person operating a bus line should provide equal such a manner as to separate the white people from Negroes." On Montgomery's buses, black passengers were required by city law to......

Words: 3632 - Pages: 15

How Far Has the Importance of Martin Luther King Junior, to the Success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott Been Exaggerated?

...There is no key individual or organisation that has not been exaggerated to some extent. The success of the Montgomery bus boycott was due to a combination of organisations and key individuals. So to say the success was by one person or organisation would be dismissing the roles and significance of the other factors. These factors range from the role of organisations such as the NAACP to individuals such as Rosa Parks. Martin Luther King’s role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott was being a leader. The setting up of the NACCP in 1909 illustrates that rising social tensions regarding the advancement of coloured people in the sense of state endorsed racial discrimination, and public segregation had been exhausted for over half a century. This suggests, if the desire to protest didn't exist then the boycott would never have succeeded regardless of King's existence and efforts, as stated by King “There comes a time when time itself is ready for change.” So the success of the Montgomery bus boycott depended on how strong the black communities desire to keep on protesting and was not just a single man regulating them. Since desires to protest were already implemented before King’s existence, it would only be natural to exaggerate the role of ‘the single man that made it happen.’ In 1913 the NACCP showed that it could organize a respectable opposition against government policy such as the Jim Crow laws; over a decade before King was even born. As King stated “I just happened to be......

Words: 1638 - Pages: 7

Bus Stop

...Hunter Miller Bus Stop Critique 4/2/14 The name of the play was Bus Stop, and the playwright is William Inge. The play was presented at Dyersburg State Community College theatre in Dyersburg, TN. Mrs. Meliah Lewis directed the play. The play was presented on March 27th through the 29th. I saw the play on the 29th. The play starts in a diner called Grace’s Diner. Set in the 1950s a terrible blizzard comes through the town. The bus stop right outside of the diner has a bus stop. When the final bus of the night stops in, the sheriff is notified that the highway patrol has closed the road out of town towards the bus’ destination, Montana. The very diversified group of passengers on the bus are then forced to spend the night in the diner until morning. The driver of the bus and owner of the diner are interested in each other and end up going to the owners’ apartment above the diner. The professor on the bus ends up trying to sweet talk the waitress at the diner. The waitress unknowingly agrees to meet up with professor later in the week, and ends up finding out the professor isn’t a professor at all. There are two cowboys on the bus from a ranch in Montana. One of the cowboys has pretty much kidnapped at singer from a club and is in love with her and telling her they are getting married against her will. The sheriff of the town stays around the diner to make sure that the singer is well protected and respected by the cowboy. The cowboy doesn’t listen to well and ends......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Montgomery Bus Boycott

...Martin Luther king .Jr and the Montgomery bus boycott During the first half of the twentieth century, segregation was the way of people in the south. Martin Luther king. Jr was one of the black leader of the movement .He was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta Georgia. King was a minister and also leading the civil rights movements until his death (assassination in 1968.he had lead the movement pacifically that make him won the award of 1964 of peace prize. The movement had started since after Mrs. Rosa parks been arrested for not get up her seat for a white that period everything, everywhere in the south were segregated in somehow or someway. People of color were treated as if they were nothing, they were called niggo, cow etc. but king has put all his effort to stop or abolish the racial inequity from African-American life, and nevertheless it was almost impossible. Segregation was made a law that was adopted by all institutions in the south. It was to whom their skins were different in color, but not all of these people have accepted the law. Others believe it is not fair to have a separation. The revolution has started when Mrs. Parks a seamstress at the Montgomery fair department left work tired on December 1st 1955. Where she boarded a bus that day, as more passengers boarding, the black’s folks moved to the rear to let the whites’ board and sit. Mrs. Parks was asking for her seat by the driver named J.F Blake, she remained silent and pay no mind to him. She......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Bus 475 Assignment 2

... Chevron’s Global Business Challenges Anthony J. Smith Strayer University Dr. Johnnie Woodard BUS 475 March 2, 2014 Chevron’s Global Business Challenges While embracing an effective and productive global business environment, there are often ongoing matters such as unethical business challenges, failure to embrace technology advancement, and stiff competition among businesses (Chevron, 2012). It is the responsibility of each individual global company to ensure that proper strategies and policies are utilized to address these challenges. This paper will analyze the Code of Conduct of Chevron Corporation, as it relates to other companies in the industry, while simultaneously determining the key issues impacting the company and how technological advancements may face challenges in the global society. Chevron is a company that has an extensive strong history, which began when a group of explorers and merchants established the Pacific Coast Oil Company on September 10, 1879, in San Francisco. The company has changed its name more than once, but claims to have always retained their founders’ spirit of grit, innovation, and perseverance (Chevron 2013). They have transformed into what is now Chevron Corporation, recently ranked 9th among the world’s top oil companies by Petroleum Intelligence Weekly in 2013, second among US oil companies behind ExxonMobil (Chevron 2013). Chevron has partnered with other companies, each with their own unique history,......

Words: 3570 - Pages: 15

The Significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1956, in the Overall History of the Struggle for Civil Rights in the United States During the 1950s and 1960s?

...The Montgomery bus boycott was a 381 day protest against the Jim Crow segregation laws that existed in the southern states of the US during the 50s and 60s. It involved the ordinary black people of Montgomery and was the first time that ordinary black people took part in the challenge to discrimination against black Americans. The NAACP (National Association for the advancement of coloured people) and CORE (Congress of racial equality) worked away quietly for many years beforehand fighting in long court battles to end segregation but the Montgomery protest, although fought in courts, was massively supported on the streets. Jo Ann Robinson of the Women’s League and E.D Nixon of the NAACP set up the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association) which not only organised and lead the boycott of the buses but continued with peaceful protests despite harassment form white racists. Support increased as people approved of the non-violence in the protests. The MIA was of great pride across the US and the popular public opinion expressed on the streets was of great inspiration to black people who then went out and organised themselves in the towns and cities like that of Montgomery which launched the modern civil rights movement. The black churches and religious leaders gathered from across the southern states and formed the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) to fight for civil rights for blacks by means of marches, demonstrations and boycotts. The black churches and......

Words: 493 - Pages: 2

Assess the Significance of the Events in Montgomery 1955-56 to the Civil Rights Movement

...The events that occurred in Montgomery were triggered by one individual, Rosa Parks. This woman refused to give her seat to a white man, in doing so caused her arrest, but also caused the Montgomery bus Boycott, which was of massive significance to the civil rights movement. When Rosa Parks had been arrested, The NAACP and the black Alabama State College helped to free her, encouraged by others; this caused students to copy and distribute propaganda leaflets around the community, in addition, gaining total support from the black community. The NAACP believed that by involving the church, this would add to the support they need for this cause, due to this, they involved church leaders, including Dr Martin Luther King. King allowed his church to be used as a meeting place to plan the bus boycott to protest at park’s arrest, thus the church provided location and inspiration. The community agreed that King would be a good leader for the boycott as this brought king into prominence as the leader of the civil rights movement. The black community successfully boycotted on the day of Rosa Parks’ trial, demanding that the bus company should use a first come, first serve policy and that the drivers should be polite to blacks, this proposal was the rejected. The one day boycott that was first organised became a yearlong and therefore became extremely successful. The yearlong boycott became a very popular story and attracted worldwide media, which obviously caused more black......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Rosa Parks and the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott

...Rosa Parks and the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott HIST102 American History since 1877 The civil rights movement in the United States was a struggle against the racial discrimination and segregation the African Americans faced prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Dating back nearly 100 years, when the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in 1863, black people in the South had been fighting for equality from the moment they were freed from slavery. There were many events that contributed to the civil rights movement. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was established in 1909. Jackie Robinson broke the color lines of Major League Baseball in 1947. In 1954 Congress overturned the Plessy vs Ferguson ruling, determining that segregated schools naturally unequal. In 1963 more than 200,000 blacks and whites marched to the nation’s capital to protest racism and hear Martin Luther King Jr’s famous “I Have A Dream” speech. In 1964 the Civil Rights Act was passed, forbidding racial discrimination in schools, employment, hotels, public transportation, etc. Following the Civil Rights Act was the Voting Rights Act in 1965, which was instrumental in the expansion of black voters. There were many more events that helped shape the development of the civil rights movement and in the following information will discuss one in particular: The 1955 arrest of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott. Rosa Parks was born on February 4, 1913. She......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Nestle Boycott

...Nestlé Boycott Final Exam Case Study Business Ethics The arguments for continuing the Nestle boycott from the viewpoint of consumers is that in the last 30 years, there has been significant amounts of change that have resulted from the boycott. Nestle not only agreed to abide by the WHO code but Nestle also stepped up their efforts to develop new ways of managing this baby milk issue. As stated in the article, the company introduced an ‘ombudsman system’ to encourage employees to confidentially report violations without fear of retribution — this shows their efforts to change. Another example is that they are being open and transparent with their marketing by allowing Bureau Veritas, the global auditing firm to complete an internal and independent assessment. We can see that the efforts of the boycott are not being ignored in that Nestle went to great lengths to release dedicated reports on its economic and social impacts in Africa and Latin America for the first time. On the other hand, there are also arguments against continuing the boycott. Infant formula products account for less than 1% of Nestlé’s profits, yet this 30-year boycott and issue is still present today and if anything the media coverage of this issue for the last 30 years has caused anything but harm to Nestle. If anything, they are receiving more publicity than ever. Seeing as Nestle has wilfully accepted each demand by the boycott and has abided by every code of conduct presented by the WHO and......

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

James Montgomery Flagg

...In 1877, James Montgomery Flagg was born at Pelham Manor, New York. Flagg also known as J. Montgomery, he was an early master of pen and ink, but he was much more. He was an American artist and illustrator who gain reputation during the first part of the twentieth century. He worked in media ranging from fine art painting to cartooning but he is mostly known for his political posters. Flagg was married twice. His first wife was Nellie McCormack who survived till 24 years and ended when she died. Dorothy Wadman was his second wife and did not have any children. He had a complicated relationship with his parents. He was enthusiastic about drawing from his young age James Montgomery Flagg is generally regarded by art historians as an extraordinary talented child, because at the young age of twelve, he sold his first illustration to a well known magazine. From 1898-1900 he studied fine art in London and Paris with his friend, he believed that artists were born with talents, not trained, and counted his formal art training as a waste of time. After that he came back to the United States where he created countless illustrations for books, magazine covers, political and humorous cartoons, advertising, and spot drawings. After a few short years later, Flagg was already an employee of illustrator for two main humor magazines. Although he created some achievement early in his career as a painter, illustration was his true passion. His earliest books......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Ms Rhonda Montgomery

...Thermodynamics and Types of Energy Rhonda Montgomery American Intercontinental University Abstract The energy act 2005 addresses issues having to do with energy usage covering fossil fuels, nuclear power and the efficiency of energy and includes two major provisions, tax incentives for the advanced energy saving technologies with the second provision being to set standards for the minimum efficiency with a set of smaller efficiency provisions. The laws of thermodynamics are the study of energy and the ability of energy to be able to do work. Physicists were involved with studying the flow of heat from machines and the chemical changes that accompanied the work, obtaining its maximum efficiency, a machine that has the ability to run off of its own heat. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy and matter cannot be created or destroyed with the second law stating that it is impossible to take away heat from a reservoir and positive work with the energy moving away from the source not being able to flow from cold to hot. In order to have a continual flow of heat there must be energy present. In order to have a continual flow of heat there must be energy present. The third law of thermodynamics states that all processes will stop when the temperature reaches an absolute zero and with this the molecules will then not move and as a result the production of energy will be stopped. ......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

James Montgomery Flagg

...James Montgomery Flagg James Montgomery Flagg was born in Pelham Manor N.Y on June 18, 1977. James Flagg’s parents were Elisha Flagg who was a business man and Anna Elida Coburn. He was an illustrator and a writer for over twenty years and had some very famous art work that people still remember today. Some of the things that will be cover on James Montgomery Flagg are his education/apprenticeship, the culture and society of the time period his work was made, historical design/art precedents that influenced him to do the illustrations that he made, his most significant accomplishments over the years, and subsequent influences that he had on later generations. James Montgomery Flagg had quite a few more famous art works that he made that people don’t really know about. Figure [ 1 ]-1 James Flagg in 1915 James Montgomery Flagg’s public schools were Dr. Chapin’s School from 1889 to 1891 and then moved to Horace Mann School from 1891 till 1893. Then James went to study at the Art Students League from 1894 till 1898 under John H. Tqachtamn and J. Carroll Beckwith. Than in 1898 he attended Hubert Herkomer’s Art School in Bushey, Hertfordshire, England. James Montgomery Flagg intended to be a portraitist, and continued to paint and draw portraits throughout his career. James says that, “his real education came from the material that passed over the desks of the editors of St. Nicholas, Judge and Life” [ {{52 Anonymous}} ]. At St. Nicholas, Judge and Life James was......

Words: 2030 - Pages: 9


...Seth Alesna Professor Collins COMM 105-04 19 October 2015 HW 2: Boycott Film Worksheet 1) a) Dr. King’s goal is not to “beat” the white citizens’ council, but to peaceably negotiate. He shows the utmost respect for them by listening attentively to what they say, not interrupting, and not outright challenging their opinions and declarations. He answers their question directly, stating that he only wants a humane system. b) “We are refusing your services because we want change.” c) In Scene 20, it is stated that, “If we can’t agree among ourselves we will not succeed with this boycott,” demonstrating that even though communication was present, the conflict within the group still wasn’t completely resolved. 2) a) In Scene 61, the Mayor openly declares, “The Negroes can accept our terms or suffer the consequences.” He feels threatened by the potential reform the movement could bring, and by being the Mayor (a position of which he is evidently proud) of a government that is against this civil rights movement, he feels directly challenged by protesters, which leads to his aggressive behavior. b) The Mayor and other members of the white citizens’ council begin employing underhanded tactics, the introduction of three new white branch members and raising taxi fees for blacks are just a few examples of their attempts to quell the boycott. c) The Mayor is in a position of higher authority, and it is clear he is completely uncomfortable with idea of black people being on...

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Lizzie download english subtitles | Hell On Wheels | Ethical Decision Making