In: Business and Management

Submitted By Essaygirl2007
Words 1575
Pages 7
An Overview of Motivation Theories

Source: [pic]

Motivation theorists and their theories (1 of 2)

Although the process of management is as old as history, scientific management as we know it today is basically a twentieth century phenomenon. Also, as in some other fields, practice has been far ahead of theory.
This is still true in the field of management, contrary to the situation in some of the pure sciences. For instance, Albert Einstein, formulates a theory, which is later proved by decades of intensive research and experimentation. Not so in the field of management.
In fact this field has been so devoid of real fundamental work so far, that Herbert A. Simon is the first management theoretician to win the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1978. His contribution itself gives a clue to the difficulty, bordering on impossibility, of real fundamental work in this field concerned with people. In order to arrive at a correct decision, the manager must have all the information necessary relevant to the various factors and all the time in the world to analyze the same.
This is seldom, if ever, the case. Both the information available and the time at the managers disposal are limited, but he or she must make a decision. And the decision is, therefore, not the optimum one but a 'satisficing' one - in effect, a satisfactory compromise under the real conditions prevailing in the management 'arena'.

Traditional theory 'X'

This can best be ascribed to Sigmund Freud who was no lover of people, and was far from being optimistic. Theory X assumes that people are lazy; they hate work to the extent that they avoid it; they have no ambition, take no initiative and avoid taking any responsibility; all they want is security, and to get them to do any work, they must be rewarded, coerced, intimidated and…...

Similar Documents


...Motivation Introduction This essay is about defining Motivation and how it affects employees. Also an explanation of the main the types are to be given. A research on popular Theorist was done to support the definition and types. The researcher recognized what impact motivation has on the workplace and seek to discuss the importance. Theory Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits controls and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force, a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action towards a desired goal. In other words, a person may have certain needs or wants, and this causes them to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction). Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs.(Ozgurzan, 2013). For this paper the researcher would focus Content Theories. Developing out from the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET- Deci 1975) it was stated motivation can be divided into two types: extrinsic (external) motivation and intrinsic (internal) motivation . Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two opposing ways to motivate people. Extrinsic motivation deals with......

Words: 1276 - Pages: 6


...Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and situation. Motivation is” the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal” (Robbins 2003) Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization and persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivation individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Motivation means to move. It includes three common characteristics: It concerned with what activates human behavior, It involves what directs this behavior towards a particular goals, and Motivation concerned how this behavior is sustained. The motivation factors are; Job security, Sympathetic help with personal problems, Personal loyalty to employees, Interesting work, Good working conditions, Tactful discipline, Good wages, Promotions and growth in the organization, Feeling of being in on things, and Full appreciation of work done. Process of motivations are; Needs (desire or wants), Drives, Goal, and Relief/ Incentives. JOB SATISFACTION. It is defined as an individual’s general attitudes toward his/her job. A high level of job satisfaction equals positives attitudes towards the job and vice-a-versa. Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well.......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4


...Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. External factors that stimulate desire an energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job that is getting people to do things by rewarding them. Example of motivation is if teachers inform the class that whoever out of the students get the highest mark she would reward them with a toy or something that interest the students, which the students would be happy to receive that would motivate them to do their work. There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers. Fredrick Taylor put forward the idea that are motivated mainly by pay. His theory of Scientific Management argued that workers naturally do not enjoy work and close supervision is necessary. Taking this theory into consideration, managers should train workers and provide appropriate tools to get a general idea of the interest of each worker to give item or set a particular task that they would be qualified or interested in doing, which would help with producing of products to increase profits. Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce, as a result workers will be encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity. Taylor’s theory also makes you consider the self-determination theory, then is where people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3


...Motivation Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory. There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3


...Siew Table of Contents: 1.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….……… 3 2.0 Definition …………………………………………………………………….……... 4 3.1 Types of Motivation …………………………………………………………. 4 3.2 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory …………………………………………... 5 3.3 Herzberg’s Motivational Theory …………………………………………….. 7 3.4 McClelland’s Need Theory ………………………………………………….. 8 3.0 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….. 9 4.0 References …………………………………………………………………………. 10 1.0 Introduction In the past decades, there has been a very high growth of employment in every sector and industry. Employees, workers and staff usually carry out their specified task on regular basis to meet certain goals and targets the company is aiming at. They are known to be an essential part of the organization as they play a key role in determining the organization objectives. As the employees play an important part in the company, the employers, supervisors and administrators must ensure that the employees are productive and efficient when it comes to fulfilling their duties. The question that arises from this topic is how to make these employees productive and effective towards carrying out their daily tasks and why is it that important? The answer is Motivation and this will be the topic of this assignment. 2.0 Definition Motivation is the state of willingness which mainly acts as a driving force for an individual to put better and exert higher effort levels towards a specific......

Words: 1873 - Pages: 8


...Education Charles Kurose September 2013 MOTIVATION, BEHAVIOR, AND PERFORMANCE IN THE WORKPLACE I. INTRODUCTION Motivation is a subject that has long interested researchers and practitioners seeking to understand human behavior and performance. Over the course of the 20th century and into the new millennium, scholars have developed sweeping theories and have amassed large bodies of applied research investigating motivation across a variety of settings. Motivation has been studied in schools, the workplace, government, and athletic competitions, to name but a few contexts. It has been studied at the level of the individual, the group, and the organization. Some motivation researchers have employed cognitive models, which emphasize the role of thought processes in determining motivation and behavior, while other researchers have adopted non-cognitive paradigms, which focus on factors such as personality traits, affective states, and environmental determinants. This paper focuses specifically on research about motivation and behavior in the workplace. It discusses motivation theory, which has broad applicability across contexts, as well as the empirical research conducted in workplace contexts. In reviewing this literature, particular emphasis is placed on research about motivation and behavior as they relate to individual performance. A central aim of motivation research is to explicate the complex relationships that exist among motivation, behavior, and performance—such......

Words: 12762 - Pages: 52


...Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation is what causes us to act. Motivation can also be the reason for an individual's action or that which gives purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is any Internal and external process that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation plays an important role in a business environment, as employee motivation is believed to improved work performance. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the following three aspects (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class. Another example is we work because we don’t have money. Motives are expressions of a person's need and hence they are personal and internal as well. Motivation is something's that motivates a person into action and continues him/her in the course of action. It is complex of forces inspiring a person to work intensifying his willingness to use his/her ability to......

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6


...Motivation is the foundation all athletic effort and accomplishment. Without your desire and determination to improve your sports performances, all of the other mental factors, confidence, intensity, focus, and emotions, are meaningless. To become the best athlete you can be, you must be motivated to do what it takes to maximize your ability and achieve your goals. Motivation, simply defined, is the ability to initiate and persist at a task. To perform your best, you must want to begin the process of developing as an athlete and you must be willing to maintain your efforts until you have achieved your goals. Motivation in sports is so important because you must be willing to work hard in the face of fatigue, boredom, pain, and the desire to do other things. Motivation will impact everything that influences your sports performance: physical conditioning, technical and tactical training, mental preparation, and general lifestyle including sleep, diet, school or work, and relationships. The reason motivation is so important is that it is the only contributor to sports performance over which you have control. There are three things that affect how well you perform. First, your ability, which includes your physical, technical, tactical, and mental capabilities. Because ability is something you are born with, you can't change your ability so it is outside of your control. Second, the difficulty of the competition influences performance. Contributors to difficulty include the......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2


...Sources of Motivation This document will provide a brief description of what motivation is; it will identify at least two sources of motivation, explain the relationship between motivation and behavior, and will examine how behavior exhibits motivation. How is motivation defined? Motivation is defined as an internal process that makes an individual move toward a goal, and it is what causes an individual to act the way he or she does to accomplish that goal. However, motivation can only be limited by an individual’s behavior (Deckers, 2010). The sources of motivation are able to originate from internal sources that are described as biological and psychological variables, and from external sources, such as incentives and goals (Deckers, 2010). The most important sources of motivation are biological, psychological, emotional, environmental, and evolutionary. Biological and psychological have an immense influence on motivation as well as and these two sources are considered internal variables while environmental is considered an external variable. Biological is emotions or feelings such as appetite and hormones that work in the individual body. Psychological can be described as the “need to feel right” that can motivate the individual to act together with others. Environmental is described as the positive incentives or goals that create a center of attention on an individual whereas the negative consequences are a drive back to the individual. Emotional can be......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4


...OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Types of motivation 3. Major theories of motivation 4. Importance of motivation 5. Benefits and effects of motivation 6. Conclusion 7. References 1. INTRODUCTION Competition between organizations is becoming more and more fierce. It requires organizations to operate efficiently while innovates effectively for the future. ‘Managers and leaders within those organizations cannot only be focused on the market success and profitability of each project, but they also need to motivate their employees in order to be profitable and successful.’[1] ‘Motivation is one of the most critical drivers in personal and business success. Without motivation, nothing gets done.’[2] ‘Motivation plays crucial role in achieving goals and business targets and is equally as important for companies that work in team-based environment and in a workplace comprised of people who work independently. It is very important to make sure that each employee's goals and values are aligned with the organization's mission and vision. That is major issue for creating and maintaining a high level of motivation, which often leads to higher productivity, improved quality of work and financial gain.’[3] ‘Motivation is the creation of stimuli, incentives, and working environments which enable people to perform to the best of their ability in pursuit of organizational success. Motivation is commonly viewed as the magic driver that enables......

Words: 4132 - Pages: 17


...Final Report MGT321 (Organizational Behavior) Section: 10 Chapter: 06 Motivation Concepts Prepared By: Prepared For: 1. Nusrat Sababa Shamma ID: 083425030 Md Mujibul Hoque ………………………………. 2. Nazratun Sururan Shahrin ID: 0910029030 Faculty of ………………………………. School of Business 3. Jesmin Jerin ID: 0910036030 ………………………………. 4. Badrun Nahar ID: 0910150030 ……………………………….. Students of School of Business North South University August 8th, 2010 Md. Mujibul Hoque (MJB) Faculty: School of Business North South University Subject: Submission of a report. Dear Sir, With due regards and respect we state that we are very thankful to you as you assigned us this report on ‘‘Motivation Concepts”. It is a great opportunity for us to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge about motivation concepts of the garments sector of Bangladesh. We have tried our best to gather what we believe to be the most complete information available. Your kind acceptance and any type of appreciation would surely inspire us. We would always be available and ready to explain further any of the context of the whenever asked. Sincerely yours, Nusrat Sababa Shamma ...

Words: 6378 - Pages: 26


...Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. It is the scientific word used to represent the reasons for our actions, our desires, our needs, etc. Motives are hypothetical constructs, used to explain why people do what they do. A motive is what prompts a person to act in a certain way or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior.[1] For example, when someone eats food to satisfy the need of hunger, or when a student does his/her work in school because they want a good grade. Both show a similar connection between what we do and why we do it. According to Maehr and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are".[2] Wikipedia readers will have a motive (or motives) for reading an article, even if such motives are complex and difficult to pinpoint. At the other end of the range of complexity, hunger is frequently the motive for seeking out and consuming food.Types of theories and models[edit] Motivation theories can be classified on a number of basis. Natural vs. Rational based on whether the underlying theory of human Cognition is based on natural forces (drives, needs, desires) or some kind of rationality (instrumentality, meaningfulness, self-identity). Content vs. Process based on whether the focus is on the content ("what") motivates vs process ("how") motivation takes place. Monist and pluralistic motivational theories[edit] A class of theories about why people do things seeks...

Words: 8883 - Pages: 36


...~Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. It represents the reasons for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one's direction to behavior or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. For example, when someone eats food to satisfy the need of hunger, or when a student does his/her work in school because they want a good grade. Both show a similar connection between what we do and why we do it. According to Maher and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are". Motivation is a complex phenomenon. Several theories attempt to explain how motivation works. In management circles, probably the most popular explanations of motivation are based on the needs of the individual. The basic needs model, referred to as content theory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. Although these factors are found within an individual, things outside the individual can affect him or her as well. In short, all people have needs that they want satisfied. Some are primary needs, such as those for food, sleep, and water needs that deal with the physical aspects of behavior and are considered unlearned. These needs are biological in nature and relatively stable. Their influences on behavior are usually obvious......

Words: 339 - Pages: 2


...Motivation Plan LDR 531 Nelson Garcia Soto December 23, 2013 Denna Atkinson “Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal” (Robbins and Judge, 2013, p 202). An effective leader motivates his or her followers or subordinates to perform. Leaders encourage other to be moved by something. The degree of motivation and the type of motivation are both important. The degree of motivation is how much is someone motivated and the type of motivation concerns with what brings that motivation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are mentioned as catalysts of the explained behavior. Several theories of motivation try to explain the concept and its origins. The purpose of this paper is to explain key ideas of some of the theories as they relate to a team of six members and a mentor who is in a leadership position. The DISC assessment tool will be used to compare and contrast the individuals of the team based on their personalities. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators exist. Extrinsic motivation means doing something that leads to a separable outcome and intrinsic motivation means doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable (Ryan and Deci, 2000). In consequence, the behaviors portrayed are different. Intrinsic motivation comes natural and is even associated with behaviors since one is a child....

Words: 1520 - Pages: 7


...EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF CASE STUDY OF COCACOLA KWANZA COMPANY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA) BY OMARI RAHA SHEDRACK A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Human resources Management of Tumaini University Makumira-Dar es salaam College. 2015 IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE: (A CASE STUDY OF CASE STUDY OF COCACOLA KWANZA COMPANY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA) BY OMARI RAHA SHEDRACK Supervisor: Dr. J. Mwita A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Human resources Management of Tumaini University Makumira-Dar es salaam College. 2015 ABSTRACT The study aims at assessing the impact of employee motivation on organization performance so as to help the organization know the contribution of motivation to them. This study will be carried out at Coca-Cola Kwanza Company limited at Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The study have the objectives of assessing various motivational packages for the staff of Coca cola Company Limited, to determine which of these motivational packages influence staff performance at Coca Cola Kwanza Company Limited, to assess the effect of motivational packages on corporate performance at Coca Cola kwanza Company limited, and to examine the motivation strategies of motivating employees The study is expected to help employers to determine whether......

Words: 4742 - Pages: 19

Kenan Thompson | Samsung Galaxy J4- 5.5, 32GB ROM, 2GB RAM, 13MP+5MP Dual Sim- Black.. -44% KSh 14,999 KSh 26,999 (63) Buy now | El mundo es suyo BluRay 1080p