Motivational Theories

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By MsZinya
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Motivation is the general term for all the physical and psychological processes that start behavior, maintain it, and stop it. In short, motivation involves goal directed behavior and can be described as the force that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behavior.
It is the inner drive that causes one to act and behave in a particular manner to attain specific goals. Motivation describes needs, desires and mental calculation.
Theories of motivation are based on biological, social, cognitive, or emotional in nature. It is important to note that some of the theories can encompass more than one element.

The Drive Theories
These state that the physiological discomfort associated with maintaining the body’s homeostasis, creates an aroused psychological state that causes the person to reduce the need.
For example - hunger leads to physical discomfort (internal tension) that motivates us to get food to eat to reduce tension that restores the body back to a state of equilibrium. Such theories are biologically based.
Theorist included Clark Hull

Examples of Biological Motives Examples of Social Motives
Hunger motive Achievement motives (need to excel)
Sex motive Play motive
Temperature regulation Autonomy motive
Excretory motive (to eliminate body waste) Nurturance motive (need to protect others)

This table represents the diversity of human motives. The column on the left shows some important biological motives (drive theories) and the right column shows examples of prominent social motives (incentive theories).

Incentive Theories
Demonstrate how external factors and stimuli pull people in certain directions and energize their behaviors. These theories downplay the biological bases of human behavior and emphasize a mixture of social and environmental factors.
For example - you attend class not because you are…...

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