Pathophysiology of Cancer and Renal Failure

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Pathophysiology: Neoplasia and Renal System School of Nursing

1. Cancer Staging Cancer staging describes the severity of a person’s cancer based on the person’s initial tumor, and whether or not the cancer has metastasized (American Cancer Society, 2012, Knowledge of the stage is very important in that is can be used to explain prognosis to the patient, and can be used by the doctor and the patient to plan treatment. Staging of cancer is based on knowledge of the way in which cancer progresses in the body. Malignant cells grow and reproduce without any control or order, and they do not die when they should. In most cases the cancer cells will form a mass called a tumor. As the tumor grows it can invade tissues and organs that are close to it. The malignant cells can also break away from the tumor and enter the bloodstream (Lemone, 2004, p. 284). There are five common elements considered in most staging systems: site of the primary tumor, tumor size and number, lymph node involvement, cell type, and the presence or absence of metastasis. A common staging system is called TNM, which stands for Tumor, lymph Nodes, and Metastasis. When staging a number is added to each letter to indicate the size of the primary tumor and the extent of the cancer spread. (Lemone, 2004, p. 284) Infection, immunity and inflammation in cancer patients are all interrelated. They form what could be a triangle with arrows in all directions. Infections cause inflammation, and these inflammatory states lead to environments that foster genomic lesions and tumor initiation. Some types of cancer can damage the immune system, however it is most often the cancer treatment that causes short or long term damage to the immune system. When the body has a decrease in effectiveness of it’s immune…...

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