Penfield

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Submitted By blakek2
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Surgical Patient Case One:
Activity One:
With reference to anatomy explain how a gall stone can migrate into the pancreas, causing pancreatitis.

The pancreas is in the upper abdomen and lies behind the stomach and intestines. It makes a fluid that contains enzymes that are needed to digest food. The enzymes are made in the pancreatic cells and are passed into tiny tubes. These tubes join together to form the main pancreatic duct. This drains the enzyme-rich fluid into the duodenum. The enzymes are in an inactive form in the pancreas, they are 'activated' in the duodenum to digest food.
Groups of special cells called 'Islets of Langerhans' are scattered throughout the pancreas. These cells make the hormones insulin and glucagon. The hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream to control the blood sugar level.
The bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder. This joins the pancreatic duct just before it opens into the duodenum. Bile also passes into the duodenum and helps to digest food.

Pancreatitis occurs when the pancreas becomes inflamed. When pancreatitis occurs, it's largely due to digestive enzymes attacking and digesting the pancreas, which produced them in the first place.

There are two types of pancreatitis:
Acute pancreatitis - when the inflammation develops quickly, over a few days or so. It often goes away completely and leaves no permanent damage. Sometimes it is serious.
Chronic pancreatitis - when the inflammation is persistent. The inflammation tends to be less intense than acute pancreatitis but as it is ongoing it can cause scarring and damage.

Gallstones are the most common cause in the UK. A gallstone can pass through the bile duct and out into the duodenum. This usually does not cause a problem. However, in some people, a gallstone gets stuck in the bile duct or where the bile duct and pancreatic duct open…...

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