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Phyla of the Animal Kingdom y g

Dr. Dr Westmoreland & Kristin Esparza Modification by Alie Koroma

• • • • Mid-Term Quiz Q Animal Diversity Su Summary 3 and Assignment 5 due a y a d ss g e t Next Week No Labs (Spring Break)

Which Anatomical Features Mark Branch Points on the Animal Evolutionary Tree?
• Lack of Tissues Separates Sponges from All Other Animals • Animals with Tissues Exhibit Either Radial or Bilateral Symmetry
– Radially Symmetrical Animals Have Two Embryonic Tissue Layers; Bilaterally Symmetrical Animals Have Three – Bilateral Animals Have Heads

Radial symmetry central axis plane of symmetry

Bilateral symmetry


plane of symmetry


Body symmetry and cephalization

Which Anatomical Features Mark Branch Points on the Animal Evolutionary Tree?
• M t Bilateral Animals Have Body Cavities Most Bil t l A i l H B d C iti – Body Cavity Structure Varies Among Phyla • P Protostomes I l d T Distinct Evolutionary Include Two Di i E l i Lines

Body cavities body wall } pseudocoelom digestive tract digestive cavity “False” or pseudocoelom (roundworms) digestive cavity body } wall digestive tract

body wall ll } } digestive di ti tract digestive cavity “True” coelom (annelids, chordates) coelom

No coelom (cnidarians, flatworms)

protostomes ecdysozoans Cnidaria Porifera (sponges) (jellyfish, corals, anemones) Ctenophora Nematoda Arthropoda (roundworms) (insects, (comb jellies) arachnids, crustaceans) t )

bilateral deuterostomes Mollusca (clams, snails, octopods) t d ) Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins) Chordata (lancelets, vertebrates)

lophotrochozoans Platyhelminthes Annelida (segmented (flatworms) worms)

cuticle molted

protostome development…...

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