Physical

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World Cities: With reference to examples, assess the degree to which the level of economic development of a country affects planning and management in urban areas. (40 marks)
Define planning and management: Sewage systems/housing/waste disposal
LEDC’s – naturally expect them to be less sustainable, overcrowded and less efficient because lack money for good infrastructure 1. Stage 2 DTM high birth rate therefore overpopulation overcrowding so demand for housing/schools/roads/transport high but lack money to meet * Leads to illegal squatter settlements where metal scraps used to make homes/overcrowding on the train/poor sewage systems diseases more likely to spread 1. E.g. Dharavi Slum, India – 1 toilet per 400
Could argue that LEDC’s/NIC’s have poorer planning and management and when they did try to regenerate via Partnership scheme (slum clearance programme) – left in hands of developers who dumped them all on outskirts therefore very poor 2. On the contrary – Curitiba, Brazil which is BRIC country (GDP per capita in both cities is roughly same, with Curitiba earning $300 per head more) – population not growing as rapidly as MUMBAI but still quite significant. They had different approach – more sustainable: 1. Bus rapid transit system 2. Green exchange system – poor collect recycling and receive bus pass or food vouchers in return 3. Pedestrianisation * Extremely eco-friendly and though not fully developed and on par with USA and UK, shows you don’t have to be to be sustainable and have good planning and management (waste disposal/transport management) 3. On the other hand, we have MEDC’s 2. Richer so naturally have more efficient planning and management techniques – homes are built in sound ways/if in seismically active areas, the planning of the buildings is earthquake proof i.e. California where they’re…...

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