Plagiarism: What It Is, and How to Avoid It

In: Miscellaneous

Submitted By mimi
Words 255
Pages 2
Plagiarism: What it is, and How to Avoid It By: Dr. Colin H. Gordon, Prof. Peter Simmons, Dr. Graeme Wynn, The Faculty of Arts, The University of British Columbia Executive Summary

This summary defines the essence of plagiarism and the different aspects of it, points out the severity of the consequences it may lead to, and gives recommendations on ways to avoid it.

What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is intellectual theft; it is considered a serious academic offence, which may lead to grave repercussions on students’ academic history, to suspension, or even expulsion from University.

What are the types of plagiarism?
Plagiarism can be found in various forms:
- complete plagiarism - whole works being stolen;
- near-complete plagiarism - using portions of another text as own;
- patchwork plagiarism - patching together ideas and phrases from different sources;
- lazy plagiarism - appropriating others’ language accidentally due to sloppy research;
- self plagiarism - using or adapting one’s own work written for another purpose.

What are the ways to avoid plagiarism?
The boundaries between original work and plagiarism could sometimes be blurred; students should avoid any traps simply by maintaining good research habits and following the basic rules of writing and documentation; distinguish clearly between their own words and ideas and those of others; record, track, acknowledge and quote sources accurately; strive for originality in their work.

The article exposes the negative implications of plagiarism; discusses its various manifestations, which students should make sure to recognize and avoid; and asserts that the best solution to prevent plagiarism is to create original…...

Similar Documents

What Is Plagiarism?

...What is Plagiarism? According to Black’s Law Dictionary plagiarism is “The act of appropriating the literary composition of another, or parts or passages of his writings, or the ideas or language of the same, and passing them off as the product of one’s own mind” (Black & Nolan, 1990, p. 1150). Stated another way, plagiarism is the pilfering of another’s hard work, while taking the credit for oneself. ‘The word ‘plagiarism’ comes from the Latin word plagiarius, which means ‘kidnapper.’ Writers commit plagiarism when they ‘kidnap’ someone else's work without acknowledging the source” (Hooker, 2006). First of all there are countless explanations for why a student may plagiarize, in some cases students are just plain lazy and don’t want to go through the creative process, exerting the meticulous hard work that good writing requires. There are students that suffer from poor time management skills failing to realize the amount of study and research required to deliver a genuine analysis. Likewise there are those that persist in poor note taking habits, leaving out important bits of information here and there causing confusion when it’s time to put it all together. Additionally there are students who are unaware of proper citation technique (What is Plagiarism?, n.d.). Meanwhile, plagiarism falls into one of two categories, one is intentional plagiarism, and the other is unintentional plagiarism. In the case of intentional plagiarism the writer or student knowingly uses the......

Words: 1180 - Pages: 5

How to Avoid Getting Lost

...Financial Officer, who, along with the Chief Executive Officer, is responsible for the Financial Statements. We will learn procedures and rules about how financial events are recognized and disclosed. ← We will take the perspective of independent auditors and regulators, who oversee the financial information that companies disseminate. Independent auditors work for an accounting firm and are hired to audit financial statements before these reports are filed with the SEC. Audit firms include PricewaterhouseCoopers, KPMG, Ernst and Young, and Deloitte and Touche (which collectively are called the “Big 4”) and a host of smaller, regional firms. All firms with stock that is traded on an exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange, must have their statements audited by an independent audit firm. Auditors and regulators are confronted with the critical task of being an intermediary between preparers of Financial Statements and users of Financial Statements. ← We will also adopt the perspective of a user of financial information. Users range from individuals trying to save for retirement, to employees, consumers, competitors, investment bankers, marketers, and research analysts, just to name a few. Understanding the language of accounting is a necessary component of a user’s decision making toolkit. Users must understand how financial data are measured and must understand the limitations of Financial Statements. Users also must know where to find pieces of......

Words: 1980 - Pages: 8

What Are the 6 Most Common Selling Mistakes to Avoid

...The Six Most Common Selling Mistakes to Avoid By Mike Schultz You're at an industry event mulling over which cheese will go best with which crackers at the buffet. The person next to you introduces himself. You introduce yourself. Then he says: "So tell me, what do you do?" The challenge is to communicate the key elements of your value. When we work with our clients to teach them how to sell, we tend to focus on helping them learn the right things to do. However, even those on the right track can get derailed by common mistakes. It's often just as helpful to know what not to do as it is to know what to do. Here, then, are the most common mistakes we see people making when trying to answer the question, "What do you do?" and ideas for how to avoid them. Mistake #1: Talking, but not saying anything "Our solutions help Fortune 500 and mid-size companies succeed. Our unique blend of people, process, and technology allows us to build and deliver value over-and-above our competitors. One unique thing about us is..." Even if it's well-practiced and smoothly delivered, a cliché that doesn't communicate anything is still a cliché that doesn't communicate anything. Make sure you avoid sounding like a buzzword bingo robot and focus on adding value to the conversation. Building rapport is a major component of a successful sales conversation. Starting off with a cliché, however, won't help build rapport - it's more off-putting than endearing. Mistake #2: Going...

Words: 1273 - Pages: 6

How to Avoid Middle Income Traps

...of this paper is to examine prior patterns of growth in Malaysia, document the cross-country evidence of how Malaysia compares with peer countries from a variety of perspectives, and highlight various policies to promote more rapid growth in the future. To avoid the Middle Income Trap, it is critical for a country to sustain high rates of economic growth. This task is complicated by the fact that the transformation of Asian economies from rural to urban-based is expected to take place within 50 years, while this transformation took over 100 years in advanced economies (see Aizenman et al. 2012). The economic transitions are occurring much more rapidly than those in the past (see Felipe, 2012).3 Recent evidence also finds that Malaysia, the Philippines and China will face a larger risk ofgrowth slowdown stemming from institutions; while Vietnam, India, and Indonesia are most at risk of a slowdown arising from a lack of transport and communications infrastructure (see Aiyer et al. 2013). Previous studies of growth slowdowns in fast-growing middle-income countries identify two modes of slowdowns: one in the $10,000-$11,000 range and another at $15,000 - $16,000 (see Eichengreen et al. 2012 and 2013). A growth slowdown is less likely to occur in countries with more diversified economic production accompanied by a skilled population set and high-technology production to avoid the middle-income trap (see Aiyer et al. 2013 and Eichengreen et al. 2013). 4...

Words: 540 - Pages: 3

How Plagiarism Can Affect Your Life

...How plagiarism can affect your life This paper is about how plagiarism can affect your whole life. However, before we can determine the effects, we need to know exactly what plagiarism really means. According to the Oxford dictionaries, plagiarism is “the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own”. Some people think that plagiarism is illegal, but only copyright infringement is illegal. The difference between copyright infringement and plagiarism is as follows. The copying of work that is not your own from someone who owes all the right of that work, whether this is a book, film, music piece or an idea is copyright infringement. Plagiarism is the more general term for copying without recognition to the source of the information. Though plagiarism is not always forbidden by law, there could be taken actions against plagiarism by companies or universities. Now we have an idea what plagiarism is, I will try to explain what the dangers of plagiarism can be. In general, the higher you are in education or management the more sanctions there are. For example, when a school kid at the age of 12 copies Wikipedia for his small paper, less consequences would there be than when a professor at a big university copies a colleague’s work. Though throughout the whole history of mostly art and literature many people based their work on other’s or even copied it, nowadays there are more strict consequences bound to copying and plagiarism. Students...

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

How Firms Avoid Losses Use of Net Dta

...How Firms Avoid Losses: Evidence of Use of the Net Deferred Tax Asset Account David Burgstahler* University of Washington Gerhard G. Mueller Endowed Professor in Accounting W. Brooke Elliott University of Washington Michelle Hanlon University of Michigan Business School November 26, 2002 _________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT: This paper investigates whether firms use discretion in accounting for deferred taxes to increase earnings and avoid reporting a loss. We find that firm-years with small scaled profits reduce (relative to the prior year) the proportion of the gross deferred tax asset reserved by the valuation allowance more than firm-years with small scaled losses. We find no evidence that the firm-years that have seemingly moved from having a small scaled loss to a small scaled profit using changes in the net deferred tax asset have greater expected future taxable income to support this change under SFAS 109. Our results also suggest that firms that increase earnings through the net deferred tax asset have relatively lower costs to managing earnings to avoid a loss, that is, these firms have a smaller pre-managed loss. ______________________________________________________________________________ *Corresponding author: David Burgstahler, (206) 543-6316, We are grateful for helpful comments from Bob Bowen, Frank Hodge, Kathryn Kadous, Shiva Rajgopal and Terry Shevlin and workshop......

Words: 12659 - Pages: 51

How to Avoid Professional Misconduct

...Human Resource Management Article Yuri Caicedo How to Avoid Professional Misconduct Professional misconducts might happen when you don’t expect it. For instance, a child could be physical abused by a teacher. Professionals such as teachers, engineers, doctors, lawyers, architects, barbers, and veterinarians need to get licenses to work in their fields, in which you can find codes of professional conduct. To be license you need to register with the state you practice in and meet the standards for that profession. The codes of professional conduct are rooted in ethics. These ethics are values, and what differentiate the right and wrong action. Many companies don’t require employees with licenses but these companies have their own set of codes of conduct or ethics, and they make their employees to follow. These codes of conduct were made to prevent public from irresponsible professionals. In certain professions there are codes of conduct with different rules. However, the majority of professions have the codes of conduct with similar rules. An item normally found in the code of conduct is the gross of negligence or gross of incompetence, which means that are professional does not have basic ability to work. The majority of the professional need to take an exam to demonstrate that they know about all the aspects of their job. Additionally professionals need to take renew their licenses regularly. Therefore, they can keep learning and keep up to date with industry changes.......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Ways to Avoid Plagiarism

...spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and nerves 9.Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis. 10. Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. 11. Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. Source: sry gotta give credit where credit is due :P other wise its plagiarism! O_O Asker's rating & comment I told you i would! * 3 0 * Comment (1) * No other answers Ask a Question ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form Related Questions * 11 systems of body? Their functions? * What are functions of the 11 body systems? * WHAT ARE THE 11 BODY SYSTEMS AND THERE FUNCTIONS? * There are 11 system in our body function what systems are effected by aging? * List the 11 body systems and there functions? Discover Questions * Can somebody check my answer ? * Help please Find both unit rates.? * 10 points: Define Children.? * Define focal length please.? * Terms * Privacy * AdChoices * RSS ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form...

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

How to Avoid

...How to Avoid Submitting a Paper Detailed description of a problem or an opportunity. Project Charter refers to a statement of objectives in a project. The Enterprise Service Management Reporting project intends to plan, design, construct and implement a structured data warehouse environment that will include data from ServiceNow. Survey with recommendations to determine the amount and cost of computersupport. Survey with recommendations to determine the amount and cost of computersupport. Functional managerswill provide team members for the project duration and they will be 100%dedicated to the project. Serves as the primary sales document for the project - Our Carry Curve™ handle makes for comfortable transport between the car and wherever you need to go! Our Carry Curve™ handle makes for comfortable transport between the car and wherever you need to go! To answer your post more specifically, it depends if you think beats are half decent. Or more pointedly half decent in comparison to apples current white head phones which comparatively it would be a yes. BUT I think the point your friends were making, being that it's a conversation in a public place, is that it could have been WAY better if apple kept to developing their own product. They could have definitely been MORE than half decent, for that much $$ they could have made something even better than beats. That's all. :) i react with “that fucking cat!!!” but I’m starting to wonder if I should be saying......

Words: 1077 - Pages: 5

How Plants Avoid Sunburn

... PLANTS AVOID SUNBURN    In chapter 5, we learned about one of the most important roles in plants, which is photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants,algae, and some microorganisms harness solar energy and convert it into chemical energy, this is done through pigments in plant cells. These pigments have distinct colors because some absorb more wavelengths then others. For example, carotenoids, these accessoery pigments reflect longer wavelengths of light, making them appear red, orange,or yellow. Carotenoids perform two major functions in the process of photosynthesis. One purpose is to serve as excessory light pigment and the other purpose to serve is to protect the pigments from the photo distructive reaction of oxygen.  There was a couple articles breaking down this process. I found a popular article published July 19, 2006 that has no author but the source was Arizona State University. This same institution offered a scientific article written by Iris Visoly-Fisher, Kayvon Daie, Yuichi Terazono, Christian Herrero, Fernando Fango Luis Oterom Edgardo Durantini, Juana J. Silber, Leonides Sereno, Devens Gust, Thomas A. Moore, Ana L. Moore, and Stuart M. Lindsay published in June 6, 2006. This article was most likely written for scientists or college grads majoring In the field because it was more into depth and was pubished on[->0]. While the popular article is mostly intended for high school or junior high students as its published on......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

How to Avoid Erp Failure

...How to Avoid SAP ERP Implementation Failure 1. Introduction Any company which is implementing an ERP either a small scale or large organizations is taking huge risk as they have to invest a lot of money and it is a time taking process with risks involved. Risks and issues are part and parcel of every major IT transformation project. When we place this in point of large transformation projects like SAP or Oracle these risks and issues can be huge which can collapse the entire project if not managed and monitored periodically. SAP frameworks have executed effectively more then 40000+ clients on the planet and most extend disappointments are not identified with the item or programming however basically attached to extend execution and the product usage accomplice. As defined by Rowe ERP as “ERP systems represent the implementation of old managerial dream of unifying and centralizing all the information systems into a combined one”. The existing techniques or process which is being followed during the implementation have failed so we need to be innovative by following the standard process. In this paper we would discuss about the problems while implementing an ERP and how to overcome those to implement it successfully. 2. Statement of the problem In the late 1990-2005 most of the companies which invested in ERP 50-70% of them have faced a huge disappointment and huge losses. . In a survey it is found that 56% of implementation costs over budget, average of that over budget......

Words: 2199 - Pages: 9

How to Avoid Plagiarism

...How to Avoid Plagiarism - Examples of Quoting and Paraphrasing*: Quoting means using another author’s exact words in your text. The citation must be placed in quotation marks (“…”) in your text, using the appropriate bibliographical referencing style (see resources below). Websites, pictures, statistics, graphs and tables taken from another source must be referenced.   ~ Referencing styles may vary according to faculty, discipline and even professor; ask your professor which style you should use (for example, APA, MLA, Chicago Manual). Original Text: Over time technology has been instrumental in increasing industrial and agricultural production, improving transportation and communications, advancing human health care and overall improving many aspects of human life. However, much of its success is based on the availability of land, water, energy, and biological resources of the earth.   Pimental, David. (1998). Population growth and the environment: Planetary stewardship. Electronic Green Journal, 1(9). Retrieved from Samples: Research has shown that technology has been instrumental in increasing industrial and agricultural production, improving transportation and communications, advancing human health care and overall improving many aspects of human life. However, much of its success is based on the availability of land, water, energy, and biological resources of the earth. Research has shown......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

What Is Plagiarism

...Many people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work, or borrowing someone else’s original ideas. But terms like “copying” and “borrowing” can disguise the seriousness of the offense: According to the Merriam-Webster OnLine Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means 1) to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own 2) to use (another's production) without crediting the source 3) to commit literary theft 4) to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward. But can words and ideas really be stolen? According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. In the United States and many other countries, the expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some media (such as a book or a computer file). All of the following are considered plagiarism: • turning in someone else’s work as your own • copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit • failing to put a quotation in quotation marks • giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation • changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit • copying so many words or......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

What Is Plagiarism

...Professor Gallo Personal Skills and Development What is Plagiarism? We all grew up hearing it in our sleep, “Make sure you cite your sources!” seemed to be the slogan of every teacher we had. Throughout elementary and high school, teachers made it very clear to students that it was wrong to take credit for work that wasn’t theirs. But did students really understand what plagiarism is? Some examples of plagiarism include, but are not limited to, copying and pasting another author’s words, stating an unknown or controversial fact and not citing it, or simply taking another author’s work as your own. Plagiarism is defined by Oxford Dictionary as “the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own” (Oxford Dictionaries). Northeastern University defines plagiarism as “…intentionally representing the words, ideas, or data of another as one’s own in any academic exercise without providing proper citation” (Northeastern University). While these definitions are quite vague, there are more specific guidelines as to what most schools consider plagiarism to be, as well as the consequences of committing this act. Whether plagiarism was intentional or not, Northeastern University has strict and direct guidelines to follow in punishing the student for this act. The Northeastern University Academic Integrity Policy explains what Northeastern University considers to be covers cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, unauthorized collaboration,......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Sexist Language – How to Avoid Gender Inequality

...Sexist Language – How to Avoid Gender Inequality We all are aware of the idiom, “add insult to injury.” Simply, it means to make a bad situation even worse for someone by doing something else to upset them. Sometimes, we say hurtful things on purpose and a lot of the time we say hurtful things then immediately want to shove our fist into our mouth. However, what if your person dictionary contained words or phrases that were sexist and extremely offensive, but you had no idea? There is such a thing called sexist language and there is a way to not use it. Our society has come a long way when it comes to women’s rights; however, the battle is far from over. There are still plenty of obvious obstacles to overcome in the battle of gender inequality, but one obstacle that a lot of people do not sit and think about is language inequality. I am not referring to derogatory comments or words such as the too popular insults such as, “bitch”, “hoe”, “slut”, etc., but words that Sherryl Kleinman refer to as “male (so-called) generics.” (Kleinman, 2007). She goes on to explain this coined term. Male (so-called) generics can be found everywhere such as job positions, general expressions, generic descriptions, and very popular adjectives that we all use every day. Some examples that Kleinman pointed out were: postman, chairman, freshman, congressman, fireman, mankind, he, manpower, manmade , "Oh, man, where did I leave my keys?" , There's "manning" the tables in a country where......

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Watch movie | Tập 3 Idol Jihen | 致我们单纯的小美好 第3集