Programmed Decision

In: Business and Management

Submitted By yang11yang
Words 429
Pages 2
Question 1
According to Campling, Poole, Wiesner, Ang, Chan and Tan (2007), programmed decisions can be defined as decisions which “apply solutions from past experience to a routine problem”. Thus, programmed decisions can also be termed ‘routine decisions’ where managers can usually plan them in advance and implement them when needed. On the other hand, non-programmed decisions are decisions that “apply specific solutions crafted for a unique problem” (Campling et al., 2007). These decisions are made in response to situations that are unique, are poorly defined and largely unstructured. Campling and his colleagues (2007) also added that it is important for the manager to make effective non-programmed decisions especially when there is a crisis i.e. an unexpected problem that leads to disaster.
Looking back at the given case study, the decision faced by Greyhound executives is obviously a non-programmed decision. Firstly, the situation faced by Greyhound Lines is present with ambiguous problems as well as insufficient and uncertain information. This fact had further assured that there must be creative and non-programmed decision. Secondly, the decision made is definitely not any routine, programmed decision which is familiar and straightforward. The reorganization plan does not base on past experience as the problems were unanticipated and are dealt with only after they occurred. In addition, it also influenced many parts of the Greyhound Lines’ structure and functions. Thus, this decision cannot be considered as programmed decision. Lastly, the fact that the reorganization plan is decided by Greyhound top executives can show that the decision is non-programmed because such decisions are usually made by higher level manager of organization in order to meet demands of unique and uncertain situation at hand.
Based on the points which I stated above, we can conclude…...

Similar Documents

Decision Making

...Topic 7: Decision Making a) Explain with examples the TWO (2) types of decision making. b) Explain the steps in decision making. Introduction Definition of Decision Making * The thought process of selecting a logical choice from the available options * Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. * Decision making is a process by DEFINING which a course of action is selected as away to deal with a specific problem. It is the selection of one alternative from among two or more alternatives * It is the process by which managers respond to the opportunities and threats that confront them by analyzing the options and making determinations about specific organizational goals and courses of action Answer: a) TWO (2) types of decision making Decision making is the selection of one alternative from among two or more alternatives. In other words, decision making is defined as the process by which a course of action is selected as the best way to deal with specific problem. There are two types of decision making are Programmed Decision and Non-Programmed Decision. 1. Programmed Decision Marking Programmed decision making is a repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5


...Decision-Making Process Paper MGT/230 December 10, 2012 Decision-Making Process Paper A decision is a choice between two or more alternatives; if there is only one alternative there is no need to make a decision. The decision-making process has six stages. The stages of decision-making process consist of the following: 1. Identifying and diagnosing the problem 2. Generating alternative solutions 3. Evaluating alternative solutions 4. Making the choice 5. Implementing the decision 6. Evaluating the decision I believe that one of the biggest decisions that my wife and I had to make was deciding to relocate the family to the military base or stay in our home in Virginia. This was a huge situation for our family that needed to be addressed before making any decisions. My wife and I listed all the pros and cons of moving with her to the base and staying in our home in Virginia. Pros | Cons | Keeping the kids in a familiar place. | Not having my wife at home. | Being able to keep my job. | Trying to find a new job when reaching the base. | Not having to rush to sell the house at a reduced price. | Running the household without the assistance of my wife. | After my wife and I identified and diagnosed the problem, we decided to think of all possible choices that we can chose from that would be best for our family. After my wife and I made the decision that I would stay in Virginia with our children, we set down and had a long......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

The Decision

...receive criticism from the press on a global scale that is affecting their company’s image. If their corporate image is affected, then they are bound to see those affects trickle down into their profits in the near future. This paper will interpret those external conditions, Great Lakes is experiencing in their inability to provide a solution that would be an acceptable “coping mechanism” for the company’s board of directors. As long as Great Lakes remain in the lead additives arena, their public perception is only going to get worse. Pressure from the environmentalists will eventually be aided by strict government regulations on their lead usage, which will cause them more damage in the future than they can anticipate at the moment. The Decision to Between Business and Morality Introduction This essay will perform an analysis Five External Factors Influencing Great Lakes’ Environment. In regards to the environmental-geographic factors that Great Lakes has to account for, countries that will allow them access to their rich deposits will be a huge factor in their ability to profit in the coming years. The case study does not disclose where Great Lakes’ factories are, however the company would eventually need access to areas where they can retrieve the necessary elements for lead production. Due to government regulation, and possible global sanctions, they would eventually face a hard problem in trying to find countries such as those in the Middle East that would......

Words: 1645 - Pages: 7


...Discussion making is something very important for human lives, we have two type of decisions meaningful or mindless, sometimes human makes mindless decisions that can cause damages to our and others lives. The theory of decision making is based on rational decision maker, and all our poor choices or decisions are irrational behaviors. Sometimes the pressure will make us to get mindless decisions. I had my Ante was suffering with lung cancer for more than four years, the doctors gave her from 6 to 7 years to live, she start doing chemotherapy, after the first session of the chemotherapy the doctors said that she is getting better day after day, but my ante wasn’t feeling that she was always depressed, in pain, tiered from everything that was happening to her because of her cancer, one day she went to her doctor for a checkup and she asked the doctor if there is any possibility for a surgery, which it was but the positive risk was 10% positive and 90% negative according to the doctors, she start nagging and nagging to do the surgery all of us we didn’t want her to do the surgery but in the same time we can’t force her. Her doctor informed her that the surgery can spread the cancer in her body and she can die, she didn’t listen to her doctor and she got her decision and did the surgery, after a moth she went back to the doctor and unfortunately her cancer was spreading in her body and passed away after three months. If she listened to us or to her doctor maybe until now she......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2


...In the early sections of “Looking Up and Looking Around” Jackall seeks to explain the reasons behind inadequate decision making processes and ability. The circumstances and environments that cultivate ‘decision-making paralysis’ and a lack of individual decision making ability are explained. Numerous examples and reasons are outlined to communicate a manager’s fear of failure, reluctance to make decisions and inability to make effective decisions when required at all hierarchical levels. If a decision must be made, particularly for an unexpected situation or problem, there is a tendency to look up, at superior’s intents and desires, and look around, at the general consensus of peers, before making any decisions. Jackall also explains managerial short term focus, the corporate culture of self interest and the reasons for each. In particular, he explains the manager’s interest in their progression and preference for short term, self promoting, often political, decisions over rational decisions that benefit the organisation in the long term. These passages show that personal ambition prevents good, rational decisions being made. Jackall also shows how this extends to the blaming of others and changing jobs in order to avoid being accountable for the consequences of previous decisions or strategies that enabled individual corporate progression. In essence, if you ‘outrun your mistakes’ through promotion or transfer, you will succeed no matter the impact on the organisation or......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2


... Decisions in Paradise: Part I Dana Martinez University of Phoenix MGT/350 September 27, 2009 After finishing up my studies I landed my first job with a major cooperation IGH. My first assignment was to travel to the Island of Kava and meet up with Alex for further instructions. My first business trip to the island of Kava was nothing I had imagined. Kava is an island located in the South Pacific, 50% of its population is under the age of 15. The island has a diverse mixture of different races such as the South Pacific tribe, Asian (primarily Chinese), African, French, Spanish, and a large number of Americans. My task was to help establish a greater presence in Kava. The InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) is an international hotel company whose goal is to create Great Hotels Guest Love. At the IHG, we offer more guest rooms than any other hotel company in the world, which include over 4,300 hotels across nearly 100 countries. The guests make over 180 million stays in IHG hotels every year. The company operates seven hotel brands – InterContinental, Crowne Plaza, Hotel Indigo, Holiday Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Staybridge Suites, and Candlewood Suites. IHG’s operating system is makes up of all the systematic tools we use to drive demand for our brands. This includes our advertising and marketing campaigns, our 12 global call centres, 13 local language websites, an 8,000-strong sales force, Priority Club Rewards – the world’s......

Words: 1065 - Pages: 5

Decision Making

...Decision-making is the process of choosing one option among a variety of probable alternatives. The normative model of decision making, which means how decisions need to be made, is the skill that is needed when making a decision (Furby & Beyth-Marom, 1992). In fact, we make decisions in all matters of our personal life every day. However, some of us follow certain steps to avoid any future risk, others make decision spontaneously ignoring all the consequence. As a matter of fact, models, methodologies, and evaluating tools of decision-making were well explained by Professor Frear in the previous lecture. Decisions can be categorized in two main categories, programmed decision and un-programmed decisions. Programmed decision is option that already selected for a certain situation. It is more like “IF-THEN” statement, when a specific condition is satisfied, a planned action will occur. On the other hand, the un-programmed decision is the result that comes from the analysis of gathered information for a unique situation, evaluating of list of the options, and choosing the best option among them. Based of the un-programmed decision definition, the un-programmed decision requires a well-defined procedure to be made. This procedure or model must be clear and take the consideration all the parameters that may effects the resulted decision to avoid any missing that may lead to the failure. Therefore, the decision making model has been used by organizations and even individuals...

Words: 1648 - Pages: 7


...John Marcelia Mr. Lander Honors Freshman English P. 4 19 September 2010 The Right Decision? The sun shined down on a beautiful day as my friends and I sat at home staring blankly out the window. For two years now we went out on various adventures and created an exceptionally close friendship. Some may even have though we were brothers by the amount of time we spent together. Today, even with the cool crisp air outside and the wonderful chirping of birds, our gloomy attitudes kept us sitting on the couch. The day slowly dragged on, until finally Jake and Joe’s parents gave us the idea to go out on a bike ride to the Mercer Island Community Center. We lived in Bellevue and they went on this bike ride all the time. I was not as experienced with bike riding as they were and I knew my parents would come up with some lame excuse about the lurking dangers of evil trucks and predators on the I-90 Bridge. This left me with a challenging decision to either disobey my parents, or respect the rules of my family and say no to my friends. I could just imagine the wind blowing through my hair and the roaring of engines on the freeway. I would look back on this moment for all my life and regret it if I made the wrong choice. These thoughts swarm through my head and I froze not knowing what to think. Not going would make my friends think that I am a wimp, and they may laugh at me. They may decide that their other friends are more exciting than me and that they would rather hang out......

Words: 847 - Pages: 4


...Title | To go Or Not To Go! | Story | Every weekend in Madrid is a vast array of events, parties, games, experiences. As someone who has decision paralysis, I tend to fall into the trap of not being able to make a decision quickly and sometimes missing the opportunity altogether. It was the long weekend here, and there were 4 different trip options of places to go (Valencia, Seville, Portugal, and San Sabastian). Because there were so many choices and I was unable to limit my own choices, I actually ended up being completely frozen and didn’t go anywhere because I spent SO long deciding that I missed all of the cars. | Analysis | This is a clear observation of my Decision Overload bias. This trap was so severe that it actually prevented me from doing anything. This can be very debilitating, and one needs to not get overwhelmed by decisions through limiting options and not overthinking the results too much. | Title | They all sit together | Story | My parents live in Madrid, and because they are from the United States they have very strong opinions about smoking. Since Spain is heavily polluted with smokers, I have observed that my parents who believe vehemently that smoking is awful, they will befriend locals who tend to be ex-patriots who share this view with them. I have observed in the past week that they do not hang out with many local Spaniards because they do not have the same beliefs about smoking. | Analysis | This is an interesting observation of the......

Words: 583 - Pages: 3


...DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING BENEFITS When we learned decision making and problem solving we will be able to: 1.  Identify one or more problems to solve 2.  Create a problem statement 3.  Conduct a root cause analysis of the problem 4.  Develope criteria to evaluate solution to the problem 5.  Generate a list of solutions 6.  Select the best solution 7.  Validate your solution 8.  Develop a plan to implement the solution 9.  Develop a plan to monitor and verify the solution 10.Develop a communication plan TECHNIQUES A. Brainstorming--attempting to spontaneously generate as many ideas on a subject as possible; ideas are not critiqued during the brainstorming process; participants are encouraged to form new ideas from ideas already stated (Brookfield, 1987; Osborn, 1963); B. Imaging/visualization--producing mental pictures of the total problem or specific parts of the problem (Lazarus, 1978; McKim, 1980; Wonder & Donovan, 1984); C. Incubation--putting aside the problem and doing something else to allow the mind to unconsciously consider the problem (Frederiksen, 1984; Osborn, 1963); D. Outcome psychodrama--enacting a scenario of alternatives or solutions through role playing (Janis & Mann, 1977); E. Outrageous provocation--making a statement that is known to be absolutely incorrect (e.g., the brain is made of charcoal) and then considering it; used as a bridge to a new idea (Beinstock, 1984); also called "insideouts" by Wonder and Donovan......

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Decision Making

...INTRODUCTION TO DECISION MAKING Student`s Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Decision making, in simplest terms, is the process of making a choice between two or more courses of action. We may find it hard, at some point, to pick one course of action over another. But unfortunately, we must decide all the time. Some of us avoid making decisions by procrastinating, in the guise of looking for more information or recommendations from other parties. Decision making takes many forms; ranging from intuition to reasoning. Other people may employ crude methods such as tossing a coin or taking a vote. Taking intuition and reasoning methods culminates in either programmed or non-programmed decisions; strategic or operational decisions and rational or intuitive decisions (Rao, 2010). Discussion. Programmed vs unprogrammed decisions. Where a manager makes decisions which he/she has made previously, those choices are referred to as “programmed decisions”. A programmed decision is taken over and over when a manager is faced with the same challenge since the course taken worked before. Such decisions are often guided by predetermined procedures, policies, calculations or data. With programmed decisions, a manager does not take long to conclude when confronted with a business-related involuntary decision since the test faced is not novel. Therefore, programmed decisions sanction a manager to make rationalized and dependably effective choices. For instance, one would......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4


...Decisions in Paradise, Part I Adrienne West MGT 350 March 5, 2012 William Shell Read the Decisions in Paradise Business Scenario found on your student website. Assume the role of Nik, and use your current employer (or one with which you are familiar) as the organization represented by Alex, Nik, and Chris. Use the information from the case, materials from the course, independent research, and the mission of your current organization (or one with which you are familiar). Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper, in which you develop the preliminary considerations for your organization establishing a greater presence on Kava by: Defining the issues that appear in this business scenario * Discussing the forces that are involved in formulation of the problem * Using problem formulation tools and techniques, describe the organizational and environmental obstacles in a way that considers various key stakeholders that will be impacted by decisions * Applying critical thinking in the decision-making process Critical Thinking Critical thinking requires a person to look at his or her own thinking process and put it through tests. Deconstructing the thinking and identifying weaknesses will allow the person to reconstruct it into something better (Paul & Elder, 2006). A person needs to be honest with himself and look at all aspects of the situation and why he is leaning toward one decision over another. Critical thinking occurs when a person......

Words: 934 - Pages: 4


...research methods the intent is to determine the underlying problem thus improving employee performance. Kaiser Permanente will explore and design an employee satisfaction survey questionnaire to determine employees’ attitude toward the job. The uses of survey information to measure performance while “Understanding employee perceptions of certain leadership practices (customer orientation, quality focus, training, and involvement); along with adequate information/job knowledge, teamwork, satisfaction, and retention, are most often related to customer and business performance measures” (Kam & Brooks, 1998, p. 2). From the investigative measure using both the intranet and personal interview the research questions structured to help managerial decision-making in solving substandard employee performance that has been negatively affecting customer satisfaction. The questionnaire is presented to employees who are the participants in the study. Communications The communications process of surveying measures needs to ensure collected information is ideal and accurate for the desired research study. In this case the survey is to understand why Kaiser Permanente employees’ performance is substandard by explicitly asking about employee satisfaction and engagement. In addition, the hope is that the survey will show how to improve employee performance, which subsequently should increase customer satisfaction. Any of three surveying methods could be used in this instance such as......

Words: 1870 - Pages: 8

A Decision

...stated that even though a project management is not adequate, failure is not always imminent. Failure also depends on the subjective nature of the organization adoption of new technology. The probability of the project being not being failed due to lack of project management methodology is .35. Posterior probability according to Bayes’ shows us the probability of CRM implementation failure given project management methodology is already in place. The value turns out to be equal to 0.47. Now, if project management methodology is adequate provided that the market research positively identifies a status of project management methodology in the firm, then the probability of CRM implementation failure decreases from 0.47 to 0.2884. Decision: To implement CRM project or not XYZ Global Pvt. Ltd decided to implement the CRM project using their high end product of project management methodology. However, due to complexity and budget of the project requires in-depth analysis of critical factors for CRM implementation and support of tip management. Through my research and compliance with industry constraints, the project management, change management and sponsorship is crucial in getting green signal for the implementation of CRM project (Reinartz, Kraft & Hoyer, 2004). User adoption is generally highlighted as key challenge in success of CRM project. Market analysis shows that 47% of the company finds that inadaptability of the end-user with CRM applications put the......

Words: 1551 - Pages: 7


...the small firms manage their companies, there is a laxity of business plans in most of the organisations which end up with slower progress or growth. While leadership in small firms are the best aspect compare to other firms since most of people in the organisation play an important role by working independently. Small entrepreneurial businesses without family ties and household or family businesses are strongly concerned with economic security, business survival, maintenance, and growth. For the small businesses, leaders are vision process-oriented, where managers are organizational-oriented. Both leaders and managers focus on people, but managers also focus on systems and structures. Leaders are decision makers along with managers, but managers may take longer to make decisions because they need to be aware of the organizational visions and goals. Where managers deal with conflict, leaders seem to be involved with conflict- meaning a manager accepts the status quo, where the leader challenges it. Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Lifestyle firms vs. Growth-Oriented Firms 1 3.0 Management of Small Business Firms 2 3.1. Personal and Professional Business Goal 2 3.2. Measures of Performance 3 3.3. Treatment of Employees 4 3.4. Range of Management Practices 4 4.0 Laxity of Strategy Management in Small Business Firms 5 5.0 Leadership in Small Firms 7 6.0 Conclusion 7 7.0 Reference Lists 9 1.0 2.0 Introduction Small......

Words: 3394 - Pages: 14

Dragon Ball Heroes | أفلام كرتون 88 انيميشن HDRip مشاهدة و تحميل فيلم الانيميشن Jurassic Bark 2018 مترجم اون لاين | Eps57 Days of Our Lives - Season 54