Reactive Attachment Disorder in Children and Adolescents in

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Reactive Attachment Disorder in Children and Adolescents in
Institutionalized and in Foster Care, and Adoptive Families
Lisa W. Marshall
Liberty University

Abstract
It is believed children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology (McGoron, et. al., 2012). Comparisons were made to discover if Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) was more prevalent in children raised institutions, foster care or adoptive families. Measurements included the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment, Strange Situation Procedure, Disturbances of Attachment Interview, and the Preschool Aged Psychiatric Assessment (Smyke, et. al. 2012), the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Interview (Cone, et. al., 2009) in addition to the Reactive Affective Disorder Checklist (RAD-C) and the Relationships Problem Questionnaire (RPQ), in the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder (Thrall, et al., 2009). These measurements were not only utilized to discover the existence of RAD, but to test the validity of the methods. Additionally, treatment studies including holding, narrative therapy, parenting skills training, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, psychodrama, and/or neurofeedback (Wimmer, et. al.,2009) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (Cone, et. al.,2009) are examined.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) lists Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) as a serious, directly linked outcome of early infant–mother attachment difficulties (American Psychiatric Association 2000). According to the DSM-IV-TR, Reactive Attachment Disorder is ‘‘the psychological disturbance of the relationship between a child and his parent(s) or primary caregiver based on pathogenic care’’ (American Psychiatric Association 2000, p 128). It is characterized by ‘‘markedly disturbed and…...

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