Role of Religion in Human Culture

In: Social Issues

Submitted By katja328
Words 522
Pages 3
Role of religion in human culture

Anthropologists define religion as a cultural universal that encompasses beliefs and behavior concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces (Kottak, 2013). Even though it is a human universal, the rules of religion vary from culture to culture. Even within the major religious traditions, there may be a great many variations. Methodist traditions are different from Baptists who are widely different from Catholic tradition.
Signs of religion date back as far as sixty to one hundred thousand years. Prior to the Neanderthals there were no signs of religion. Neanderthals were the first to bury their dead, suggesting a belief in an afterlife.
Religion serves many different functions in society. First and foremost, it provides an answer to universal questions humans have. These questions are:
What am I?
Where do I come from and where do I go?
What is death?
What happens when I die?
Why do bad things happen?
What is the meaning of life?
Religion can provide a sense of comfort and security to people as it provides explanations for events that are outside of people’s control. It also can establish and “maintain social control through a series of moral and ethical beliefs along with real or imagined rewards and punishments. (Kottak, 2013)” For most religious people, their beliefs are the very core of their world views. These believes also are important in defining humans’ ideas of what is right and wrong. If one does the right thing, one will go to heaven. If one does the wrong thing, hell awaits one.
According to different anthropologists religion serves different needs and not all agree on what these needs are. Edward Tyler suggested that religion evolves through stages: from animism to polytheism to monotheism and finally science. He believed that as the knowledge of science increases, the religious influence…...

Similar Documents

Influence of Religion on African Culture.

...Table of contents Introduction…………………………………………………..3 African Traditional Religion……………………………….5 Christianity, Islam…………………………………………..6 Influences of Religion on African Culture……………….6 Conclusion……………………………………………………13 References…………………………………………………...14 Introduction Africa is a continent of diversity. In this diversity there are hundreds of tribes and communities each practicing its own culture and religion. It would be very difficult to define Africa’s traditional religion as it would be difficult to define its culture. More so, it is extremely difficult to establish the dividing line between African Culture and African Religion. However, as much as there were many African Traditional Religions, their similarities were more dominant than their differences. We take up these similarities and encompass them as one African Traditional Religion. In this report, we explore the important aspects of Africa’s Traditional Religions and cultures that cut across the entire continent. This essay is based on various researches done by prominent scholars, historical background of Africa, news and books relevant to African studies. This report attempts to define religion, culture, and explores the major religions, African Traditional Religion (ATR), Christianity and Islam and their influence and impact on African culture. Africa is one of the World’s six continents. It is the second largest and second most......

Words: 3933 - Pages: 16

Religion, Culture and Death

...Religion, Culture, and Death The five religions discussed during this week’s seminar have many similarities, and just as many differences, in relation to their specific views on death, dying, bereavement and grieving. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism all contain their own system of beliefs and traditions that members use in order to deal with impending death. Judaism is the oldest of the three monotheistic religions that stems from the Middle East and follows the teachings of Abraham and Moses. Judaism believes that death was a direct consequence of Adam and Eve eating from the forbidden “Tree of Conscience” (Leming, 2011). There are several branches of Judaism throughout the world: Orthodox Judaism, Hasidism, Neo-Orthodox Judaism, Reform Judaism, Conservative Judaism, and Reconstructionist (Wilkinson, 2008). All of these sects of Judaism can have very different traditions in regard to the treatment of the deceased’s body. Under the old Jewish tradition, the body of the deceased must be buried as soon as possible after death, within twenty-four hours if possible, although the burial cannot happen on the Sabbath. Before burial, the body is washed, anointed with oils and spices, and dressed in a white linen sheet after which it is buried in Jewish consecrated ground. More contemporary Jews are more likely to choose cremation over burial. Jews have a multi-tiered morning practice. For the first seven days after the......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Women's Gender Roles in Religion

...Carolina Oquendo Sociology of Gender Final Project Gender roles in religion have always been a controversial topic. All of the major world religions belittle women to some degree. It is not a secret that women have historically gotten the short end of the stick, so to speak, when it comes to how they are treated and viewed in religion. After researching this topic, I can safely say that the women do all the work and the men take all the credit. Women are treated less than equal to men in most religious settings. Below I will touch upon women’s roles in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, the Rastafari Movement, Mormonism and Islam and how they have in fact, gotten the “short end of the stick” and how women have been belittled in every major religion. Christianity is a religion wholly based on the life teachings of Jesus Christ as presented by the gospel. Followers of this faith, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the son of God. They refer to Jesus as Christ or the Messiah. There are many denominations within Christianity. Some of these include Catholicism, Orthodox, Protestant and Restorationists. The Roman Catholic Church is headed by the pope. Catholics believe that there is one holy catholic and apostolic church founded by Jesus. The Protestants are people that separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th century. They often refer to themselves as being born again and when asked what religion they follow, they answer that they are Christian.......

Words: 3413 - Pages: 14

Understanding the Role of Culture

...7/23/2013 Case Study # 1 Week 2 Understanding the role of culture Culture can be a combination, of rules, beliefs, techniques, artifacts, language, and religion, when these things come together it influence the human mind. With influence of culture in the human mind, it impacts the way business is conducted. We then look into corporate culture, which is what defines how managers and employees conduct themselves in the workplace of particular companies. The term corporate culture is also used when HR and Management want show a sense of community within an organization. It is well know that America is know as the melting pot, which means that we have people here from varying countries and different cultures. This means that workplaces in America are multicultural and everyone pretty much has to adapt to the culture set fourth in the office. Does this method work 100%, not always, but people adapt to it. Now with companies opening up in different countries it makes things a bit harder. Over the last 20 years many businesses have gone international, so it would be fair to say that multinational companies dominate international markets. They are many strengths regarding understanding the roles of culture, like cultural awareness, which helps a manager plan, organize, lead, and control in a specific international setting. The awareness helps managers understand, and have empathy to a person situation, and culture if need be. The other great thing is that it makes......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

The Role of Cultures in Global Management

...The Role of Cultures in Global Management   Abstract What is culture and how other people deal with culture on a daily basis. Countries around the world work daily with different cultures in a business setting. There are many different ways that culture practices get done throughout the world. Middle East does things different than what the United States does. Global management and cultures bring many issues with it. Managers and staff need to find new ways to handle values, beliefs and social norms when working a business around the world. Most businesses have an assortment of different cultures and backgrounds because there are different people working within the group. This “Group of people" has the same religion, language, beliefs, and values share a culture no matter what. This, in turn, joined with all different types of people in the same cultural system. An examination made of the art of administering groups who are from different cultures, taking into account their different set of values, carry out, and ways of achieving different goals. A review presented of some of the problems that inherent in from one country to another because manager reject or is helpless of internalizing the local culture in which the displacement operates. Culture provides two functions that affect global management today. With the growth in global activities of both domestic and multinational companies, managers need a good perceptive of culture. People’s......

Words: 2263 - Pages: 10

The Role of National Culture on Leadership

...Summary The aim for this thesis is to answer the problem statement: How do national cultures influence leadership styles? To give an answer to this question, this thesis is divided into three parts: leadership, national culture and the connection between them. The conclusion of this thesis is based on analytical and exploratory research. The first part, on leadership, focuses on mainly two types of leadership: transactional and transformational leadership. Transactional leadership is mainly based on the transaction between leaders and their followers. Bass described four components of transactional leadership: Contingent reward, Active management by exception, Passive management by exception and Laissez-Faire leadership (1997). Transformational leadership focuses mainly on inspiring and stimulating the followers. Transformational leadership contains also four components: Idealized influence (Charisma), Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation and Individualized consideration. The second part focuses on different studies on national culture: Hofstede (1983), Schwartz (1990) and Inglehart (1997). Each study has different values and dimensions, both all three studies show some similarities. The first similar dimension contains: Hofstede’s Power distance, Schwartz’ Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism and Inglehart’s Survival and measures the degree to which the people in a national culture accept and expect the unequal distribution of power. The second similar dimension......

Words: 8555 - Pages: 35

The Role of Religion in Medieval Society

...Contreras Civilizations II Second essay October 9, 2013 The Role of Religion and Church during Medieval and Renaissance Society The role of religion and church was very influential during The Middle Ages and Renaissance society. They possessed a great deal of power that couldn’t be taken away by any ruler. In fact, the church was a counter to kings who wanted absolute power. Any king who wished to rule must have the church on his side. Opposing the church would lead to excommunication. Today this doesn’t sound like much, but at the time, excommunication translated to the downfall of one’s kingdom. The Middle Ages were a time in which everything was controlled by oaths. So for a king to oppose to the church meant that he was breaking the oath of allegiance he had with God. This resulted on the pope excommunicating the king. Now, everyone from the king’s subjects to his enemies could be freed from those oaths, and all of the allegiance with that particular king could be cancelled. This means that anyone could rise up in revolt or invade, without fear of condemnation by the church. Also, any subjects of the king who opposed his views could switch sides without being accused of treason. The church also played an important role in government. Being allied with the king, church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king’s council and played influential roles in society. These important roles granted them power and wealth. But not anyone was......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Hrm and Its Role on Culture

...Culture plays a significant role in influencing the ways in which people are managed. This is the reason why cultural differences mandate different management practices. It is believed that Human Resource Management (HRM) practices are the most vulnerable to the cultural differences having significant implications for the appropriateness and design. International HRM has proposed that cultural differences result in varying individual preferences and perceptions that give shape to organizational behavior along with work motivation; conflicts; communications; defining goals; work-orientation; rewarding and performance appraisal, management styles and decision making. Some of the economic theories have also realized the significance of culture in giving shape to behaviors of institutions and individuals. It has been proposed that other than formal, the context of informal institution influences governance structures which coordinate the individual actions taking place within the firms. The significance of studying cultural differences with respect to HRM policies and practices in relevant practices and literature is twofold. Rising cultural diversity due to internationalization of global economy indicates that the global organizations are the most challenging context for implementation and designing of the integrated and unusual HRM practices and policies which address the cross-cultural concerns. Cultural differences on the other hand are significant for studying HRM......

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Culture and Religion

...Culture and language are, in many cases, synonymous. Often times, culture breeds language. Throughout my youth, I have had the enriching opportunity of growing up in a cultural environment. This is an experience that has given me many valuable tools and skills. There are two cultural artifacts linked to this page. These artifacts illustrate the effect that culture has on language. The cultural foundation in my childhood, and the language associated with it, instilled me with strength, moral correctness, and just principles. My first artifact is a sound clip of me playing two Djembe (jim-bay) drums, a Dun Dun (doon-doon) drum, and a Kenken bell. This sound clip was produced years ago – I was recorded in layers to give the illusion that there were four musicians. The “cultural community,” as its members often refer to it, consists of blacks who are in touch with their traditional African roots (specifically west-African). Fourteen years ago, west-African percussion was in its prime; I was lucky enough to grow up around the major players. Yet, this community and form of music had an exclusive language. Conversations with Djembe players were often nonsensical to anyone outside of the community. The English used by members of the cultural community was a Creole of traditional concepts, words from west-African languages, and Djembe music terms. This situation was intensified by the fact that west-African music is polyrhythmic and incapable of being written. For example, a......

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

The Role of Women in Religion

...The Role of Women in Religion: The role of women in religious scripture dictates an inferior position in society. Beginning with the creation of Adam and then Eve, as his helpmate. Her purpose was that Adam would not be lonely. This origin provides the ground work for inequality of genders on the basis of religious scripture. The roles prescribed determined that women should be in a subordinate position to man. The female role and relationship with God is defined by the various books of the Old and New Testaments, the reported actions of Jesus Christ, and finally the Qur'an. Initially, Old Testament describes women as the corrupter of man. However, through interpreting the action of Jesus Christ, we see that he holds women in equal roles as men, to include mention of female apostles. The New Testament does not promote equality but does mention the acts of Jesus. Finally, the Qur'an places women in a subservient role allowing men to keep their under control, by any means. Interpretations of the Gods word under the disguise of organized religion are the product of the gender discrimination of the time and continue to paint women as lesser creatures in the eyes of God. The books of the Old Testament, and variations, are recognized by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. Each paint women as the temptress responsible for the mistakes of men. Women were the cause of the first punishment given to mankind. Eve persuaded Adam to eat the forbidden fruit, from......

Words: 1356 - Pages: 6

The Role of Culture in the Workplace

...The Role of Culture in the Workplace Anne Marre S. Bautista The Chicago School of Professional Psychology The Role of Culture in the Workplace Culture is a crucial factor of human behavior. Over the last decade, culture has become a hot topic in organizations because of the explosive rise in the ethnic diversity in work places. This increase in cultural diversity comes with consequences which have resulted in the emergence of a need to build cross-cultural competencies among personnel in order to create work places that allow all employees to perform at the optimal capacity without being marginalized and made to fell incompetent or in adequate based on their cultural background and behavior norms, values and beliefs. Cultural differences within organizations can lead to challenges such as conflict and poor performance. Understanding the role of culture diversity in the workplace is important for organizations searching to build a competitive edge in the global market. This paper addresses the role of culture diversity on motivation and conflict within organizations. These issues were first revealed to me when I was 18 years old, and I got a job as a sales associate. I only worked there for two months. But I only needed two months to witness the role of culture in a workplace. I was one of the very few Asian associates. The other Asian was a Chinese young woman called Stephanie (pseudonym). The workers were predominantly Caucasians as well as were the clients who......

Words: 2403 - Pages: 10

Divine Roles Across Cultures

...------------------------------------------------- University of Phoenix Material Divine Roles Across Cultures Part I Select one common divine role that recurs in world mythology. Possible options of divine roles include the following: father or mother divinities, divinities of war, home or hearth divinities, divinities of love, divinities of wisdom, divinities of medicine or health, divinities of the wind, divinities of agriculture, divinities of the sky, ruler of all the gods, and so on. Identify the role in the title of your table. Select two myths, each from a different culture, in which the divine role appears. Identify the divinity names and cultures in columns A and B. Complete the table by answering each of the five questions for both selected divinities. Title: Sky God | Column ADivinity Name: ZeusCulture of Origin: Greek | Column BDivinity Name: OdinCulture of Origin: Norse | 1. How is this divinity portrayed? Describe the divinity’s role within the myth. | The myth of Zeus depicts him as a grand man, experienced while having a facial hair and long hair. | Odin is delineated as an old man wearing a blue cover and a wide-flooded top that disguised his one-looked to face. His guideline parts in Norse myths are in the midst of the creation and annihilation of the world. | 2. Is the divinity male or female? What function does this gender play? | Zeus is a male god. His male sex reveals to him as a political and national......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Culture and Religion

...Culture and Religion: An in Depth Analysis Culture and Religion: An in Depth Analysis “Religion is one element of a culture, a transcendent element of it." Francis Arinze The Influence of Religion One of the most pervasive influences in how people in various cultures and sub-cultures develop identity and purpose is through their faith and religion. One’s religious traditions - like family, tribe, or nation - anchors them to the world. Religious traditions provide structure, discipline, and social participation in a community (Samovar, Porter, McDaniel & Roy, 2013). Religion, also sanctions a wide range of human conduct by providing notions of right and wrong, setting precedents for accepting behavior, and transforming the burden of decision making from individuals to the supernatural power (Samovar et al., 2013). As such, religion responds to the basic human need to understand the purpose of life. This paper will examine five major religions: Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism along with each of their core values and assumptions. It will examine the impact religion plays in cultures as well as the overall impact religion has on globalization in the 21st century. Through a personal reflection on religious diversity in the workplace along with an overview of the Society of Human Resources best practices to handle such diversity, it will provide recommendations on how to develop a cohesive culture that values diversity and aligns the......

Words: 2712 - Pages: 11

Religion Culture

...Religion and Culture Final Exam Hinduism, Islam (mainstream and Sufism) and Sikhism are complex and fascinating with its diverse culture and rich history. Although all have individual beliefs and practices, the way they all engage with their community hold some similarities. These faiths all have some type of worship and have some form of hospitality that they carry through their community and is dictated by their beliefs. From an outsider’s point of view, Hindus are seen as those in India who worship many gods in the form of idols and wear colorful clothing. After visiting a Hindu temple, I view them as an open and welcoming community who value the Hindu traditions and practices, and the act of charity and hospitality. To Hindus, their temples are open to anyone who wants to visit. They hold many things, acts, and behaviors sacred as they perform devotional rituals in the temple. Hindus often participate in worship and charity-giving to engage those within and outside the Hindu community. The most common worship ritual is puja. In puja, the devotees and the priest gather to give their offerings to the deities. Within puja, there is a series of devotional practices and behaviors when one engages in it. Darsan is the act of seeing and being seen by the deities. This is done with the use of murti, a material in which a deity is embodied in (Rodrigues, 227). To see and be seen by the sacred is to be in their presence of the divine and receive their blessings. This practice......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Role of Culture

...1.0 ROLE OF CULTURE It is very crucial for firms and people who are planning to invest or operate a business in a foreign country to understand the host countries’ business customs, value, and ethical behaviors in order to be successful. For instance consider the story of Benjamin Franklin, the great American diplomat, inventor, physic and politician. He was the only person who convinced the French to assist the revolutionaries in their battle for freedom from England. The biographers stated that the success was due to the fact that Franklin was aware of the French’s politics, history, arts, literature, values and norms. (Muller, 1991) From the above scenario, it is crystal clear that rely firms and people that rely on their home culture to compete in a foreign country tend to jeopardize their success due to the cultural variation. This is because culture affects the consumer behaviors, local demand, buying decisions and brand loyalty. So the question is what is culture? Culture is a framework of behavioral patterns, values, assumptions and experience shared by a social group which when taken together constitute a design of living (Davey, 2011) Culture has several characteristics. To begin with, culture is a learned behavior which is non-instinctive in nature; meaning we are not genetically programmed to learn a specific culture. For example any normal baby can be born and placed in any family around the world thus learning the culture and accepting it as its own.......

Words: 3345 - Pages: 14

Read Essay | Corpse Party: Tortured Souls - Bougyakusareta Tamashii no Jukyou English Subbed | Chap 1001 Knights 34