Safe Administration of Medicine

In: Miscellaneous

Submitted By tracyha
Words 2203
Pages 9
This assignment will discuss relevant issues surrounding the subject of safe administration of medicines. The assignment will outline both legal and professional standards that have been set out by government and professional bodies for nurses and other health care professionals to follow whilst administering medicines. It will then go onto analyse actual and potential problems that may occur when a professional is trying to achieve these standards. This assignment will be supported by literature findings. The conclusion will reflect what is written.

The administration of drugs could be defined as the way in which drugs are selected, obtained, delivered, prescribed, administered and reviewed to make sure that the medicine is having the desired affect (Dougherty et al 2004). Drug administration is an integral part of a nurse’s role and as such responsibility for correct administration of drugs rests with the nurse (O’Shea 1999). It is stated that nurses spend up to 40% of their time administrating medicine (Armitage et al 2003) In order to perform this intervention safely a nurse needs to know about the drug its immediate effect and any side effects it may cause. This role involves safe handling and administration of medicines, the role also includes the nurse being responsible for the patients knowing what medicines they are taking and why. Legal, professional and cultural boundaries are changing in health care settings, which mean that a nurse’s role is now medicines management. (Dougherty et al 2004).

Medication errors can place a patients life at risk. Errors are an unavoidable subset of human behaviour, no amount of proficiency or expertise will reduce it (Reason 2000). Drug errors can be costly the results are increased hospital stay, patient harm, loss of life in some circumstances; careers ruined or fear of reprisal (Anderson et al 2002). Medication…...

Similar Documents

How Safe Is Safe

...How safe is safe August 1, 2012 19:37 How Safe is Safe Identifiable Moral values of PPI PPI has a group of identifiable moral values. This is because above sourcing its external auditing, it has enormous consideration the heath of its workforce. This is pointed out in its conducive working conditions and its interior design. More so PPI has no injury records since its establishment thus proving its safety. With top priority on employees’ cleanliness, efficiency and order it shows that health of employees is well taken care of making it safe working condition thus promoting high degree of working ethics (Northouse, 2012). Ethical Perspective describing PPI’s safety Approach PPI safety ethical approach is Utilitarianism since the firm utilizes the rule of end justified by the means. The firm knows the illegality of having external auditors, even though it stresses on consistency of having improved working environment. It views its past deeds the firms have been leveraging for the benefit of both the firm and its employees. External auditing is risk but PPI practice it to keep the firm running thus making it safe for investments. This approach employed states that greatest benefit should be made to individuals if a behavior should be adopted (Northouse, 2012). Ethical conflict amongst PPI and its Attorneys Due to varied interest PPI ethics are in conflict. The major interest of attorneys is to win PPI a case, while Interests of PPI are that the firm safety of working......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Personalized Medicine

...Running Head: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE PERSONALIZED MEDICINE Margaret Barnes SCl115-Introduction to Biology November 07, 2012 PERSONALIZED MEDICINE Personalized Medicine and Modern Genetics Technology: “Introduction” In today’s world DNA sequences are frequently and constantly improving, modern instruments can analyze DNA by the millions within a twenty-four hour period (Mader, 2010, P.178). Because of technology, these instruments have been made available now and in the future for the use of personalized medicinal products. This paper provides an overview of how modern genetic technology may lead to personalized medicine, and to give examples two or more specific benefits of personalized medicine: a discussion of its drawbacks and limitations of the approach to human medicine. “Modern Genetic Technology and Personalized Medicine” Modern technology is constantly growing in our world, for us to understand how modern genetic technology may lead to personalized medicine and the importance personalized medicine. Personalized medicine is the tailoring of medical treatment for an individual with the unique characteristics for each patient. This approach is a......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

How Safe Is Safe Case Study

...How Safe is Safe Case Study 1. As a company, would you describe PPI as having an identifiable philosophy of moral values? How do its policies contribute to this philosophy? In some ways PPI’s moral values can be considered distinguished. The reason I say this is because as we know, all for profit organizations are obviously out to make money and many will cut corners or sacrifice their future for quick gains. PPI could have very well kept their facility up to code just enough to comply with the law, but instead they are going above and beyond their own narrow self interest to insure the safety of their facility and provide a great working environment for their employees. This organization has obviously instilled some good moral values, by making decisions that not only benefit their own bottom line, but the people that work for them. 2. Which ethical perspective best describes PPI’s approach to safety issues? Would you say PPI takes a utilitarian-duty, or virtue-based approach? I believe PPI’s ethical perspective to safety can closely relate to a virtue-based approach. The company recognizes that it has a moral obligation to provide a safe working environment for its employees, and proper measures have been set forth and are being followed regularly, by having auditors inspect the plant to continuously improve on safety. The company continues to practice in good faith to improve its facility, thereby creating a comfortable, safe, efficient and orderly place to......

Words: 903 - Pages: 4

Safe Handling

...Annotated Bibliography #1 Osby, Melanie, Saxena, Sunita, Nelson, Janice, Shullman, Ira. (2007). Safe Handling and Administration of Blood Components. Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 131(1), 690-694. Retrieved on October 17, 2010, from Seven case scenarios are reviewed by four medical doctors to assess the risks that hinder successful blood transfusions and administration of blood components (2007). The authors present scenarios of actual transfusion situations, the mistakes made that affected real patients, and the lessons for nurses and other physicians to prevent such errors in their careers. Various journals, textbooks and internet sources were used to obtain data to support their claims. In the article, the doctors explain how the transfusion process involves several steps that can compromise patient safety if not carried out according established guidelines. Sometimes stories can be the most effective way to raise awareness and educate. Incorporating this is a strength of the study. The authors present scenarios that show inappropriate blood component ordering, the importance of obtaining patient consent to transfuse, the proper way to submit a blood sample to a blood bank and issue the components, and transfusing and monitoring the patient during transfusion. The authors are effective because one can imagine being part of a transfusion that......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2


...I glance up at Christian Grey, he’s watching us like a hawk, his gray eyes hooded and speculative, his mouth a hard impassive line. He’s changed from the weirdly attentive customer to someone else – someone cold and distant. “Paul, I’m with a customer. Someone you should meet,” I say, trying to defuse the antagonism I see in Grey’s eyes. I drag Paul over to meet him, and they weigh each other up. The atmosphere is suddenly arctic. “Er, Paul, this is Christian Grey. Mr. Grey, this is Paul Clayton. His brother owns the place.” And for some irrational reason, I feel I have to explain a bit more. “I’ve known Paul ever since I’ve worked here, though we don’t see each other that often. He’s back from Princeton where he’s studying business administration.” I’m babbling… Stop, now! “Mr. Clayton.” Christian holds his hand out, his look unreadable. “Mr. Grey,” Paul returns his handshake. “Wait up – not the Christian Grey? Of Grey Enterprises Holdings?” Paul goes from surly to awestruck in less than a nanosecond. Grey gives him a polite smile that doesn’t reach his eyes. “Wow – is there anything I can get you?” “Anastasia has it covered, Mr. Clayton. She’s been very attentive.” His expression is impassive, but his words… it’s like he’s saying something else entirely. It’s baffling. “Cool,” Paul responds. “Catch you later, Ana.” “Sure, Paul.” I watch him disappear toward the stock room. “Anything else, Mr. Grey?” “Just these items.” His tone is clipped and cool. Damn… have I offended him...

Words: 151445 - Pages: 606


...handled, stored, cooked, and properly packaged. Wal-Mart uses guidelines given from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration along with GFSI standards. Second, Walmart realizes that a security plan is necessary in trying to security its employees, customers, and the facility. This is why they have installed safety and security technology inside and outside their stores. Walmart stores have installed closed circuit camera systems, off-duty police officers, security monitors, and security scanners at each door entrance. Another safety and security risk that effects Walmart is slip and falls. In the retail industry workers have accessibility to parts or areas of the store that customers do not. Even the areas where customers have access need to be cautious concerning slips and falls. Slip and falls are common in retails for employees and customers. Spills that occur in the stores should have immediate attention. Spills should be cleaned up and warning signs should be in plain sight for customers and employees. Safety procedures regarding slip and falls should be watch carefully, because it can lead to serious injuries such as broken bones, head fractures, and even death. A third safety and security risk in retailer are sprains. Sprains can occur from lifting boxes or objects that requires more than one person to lift or a specific way to lift. Walmart does provide training for safe lifting workers sometimes disregards the training lift incorrectly or sometimes lift more than......

Words: 1154 - Pages: 5

Western Medicine

...masses sick, controlled, and monopolizing every aspect they can. From food, crops, medicine, natural herbs, and the way any ingredient is introduced or allowed to be used. Our bodies are continually poisoned and polluted every day of our lives, all while being told what to think and lied to. It is a conflict of interest that the very people approving the use of ingredients and drugs in everything, profit financially from the very ingredients and drugs they approve. Not just the FDA but congressmen, and government officials as well. In the following pages I’ll give some information supporting this perspective and hopefully enlightening or raise awareness of a few individuals. “You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink.” (Anonymous u. b., Before 1175 AD) I believe most citizens in the United States would opt out of getting vaccines if they understood that natural food, vitamins, herbs and supplements build up the immune system enough to fight almost any disease known to mankind. For 70 plus years, the FDA and pharmaceutical industry has succeeded at its malicious money making schemes, despite a well-documented history filled with horrific lessons. This all while being “bedded” with government’s everywhere you turn to ensure they can monopolize everything. In 2006 the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREP) was signed into law by the Bush Administration, giving the U.S. Government the power to declare a “National emergency” for any......

Words: 4626 - Pages: 19

Alternative Medicine

... ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE by Deana M. Burgin, SVN Pharmacology, VN159 Mrs. Helen Rice, RN, MSN November 10, 2013 Alternative medicine has become more popular in the past decade, mainly due to rising health care cost. Alternative medicine (as defined by NCCAM) is “using a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine.” Conventional medicine is medicine as practiced by holders of M.D. (Medical Doctor) or D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy) degrees and by their allied health professionals such as physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses. Over 40 percent of Americans today practice or utilize some type of alternative medicine to maintain their health. More physicians are accepting alternative medicines as a more holistic way to treat their patients. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) has classified alternative medicines into five main categories: Whole medical systems, Mind-body medicine, Biologically based practices, Manipulative and body-based practices, and Energy medicine. The following paragraphs will briefly discuss each of these categories; and some of the common treatments utilized today. Whole medical systems are many practices that center on a philosophy, such as the power of nature or the presence of energy in your body. Examples include ancient healing systems that have origins from ayurveda from India and traditional Chinese medicine. There are two subcategories within the whole medical......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3


...over the telephone, and overlooked changes in status.1 Lack of communication creates situations where medical errors can occur. These errors have the potential to cause severe injury or unexpected patient death. Medical errors, especially those caused by a failure to communicate, are a pervasive problem in today’s health care organizations. According to the Joint Commission (formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, JCHAO), if medical errors appeared on the National Center for Health Statistic’s list of the top 10 causes of death in the United States, they would rank number 5—ahead of accidents, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as AIDS, breast cancer, and gunshot wounds.1 The 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, revealed that between 44,000 and 98,000 people die every year in U.S. hospitals because of medical errors.2 Even more disturbing, communication failures are the leading root cause of the sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission from 1995 to 2004. More specifically, the Joint Commission cites communication failures as the leading root cause for medication errors, delays in treatment, and wrong-site surgeries, as well as the second most frequently cited root cause for operative and postoperative events and fatal falls.1 Traditional medical education emphasizes the importance of error-free practice, utilizing intense peer pressure to achieve perfection during both......

Words: 7203 - Pages: 29

Safe Sex

...people embark on their first sexual relationships in a threatening climate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including the potentially fatal HIV/AIDS virus, the value of practicing communication and negotiation to facilitate the uptake of safe sex has far-reaching implications for health and well-being. However, communication between parents and are a bit uncomfortable with topics like condoms, STDs, and past sexual partners is a difficult task for many young people whose health may be placed in jeopardy by their inability to discuss safe sex. Public schools are now making sex education apart of their curriculum. However, the controversy arises as to whether sex education should be based on abstinence or a “safe sex” model. Critics of the “safe sex” program claim that teaching safe sex is another way of giving consent to engage in intercourse. Isn’t the bigger issue ensuring that students are prepared for any type of situation they find themselves in? What good is abstinence based course if they are already engaged in sexual activities? It is a proven fact that an abstinence based course doesn’t yield results. Therefore all public schools should teach safe sex education not a course solely based on abstinence. “Safe sex” education should be taught in public schools rather than “abstinence- based education, because children/teenagers need to be well aware of the advantages as well as the disadvantages of sex at an early age in order to protect themselves......

Words: 1494 - Pages: 6

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

...Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Shift in Medicare Policy to Benefit the Elderly Disabled Nursing Role in Leadership, Management, Current Issues, and Gerontology The United States Department of Health and Human Services identifies the disabled as individuals having difficulties in movement, deficiency in senses, impairments in emotional or cognitive functioning, which is usually in connection to some sort of health problem (Altman & Bernstein, 2008). Data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2001 to 2005 indicates that 61 percent of people aged 65 years and over have some form of disability (Altman & Bernstein, 2008). The main resource for the medical needs of almost all elderly disabled people is the Medicare program (Altman & Bernstein, 2008). The Medicare program provides them with access to primary healthcare providers, hospital care, nursing home care, hospice, home health, some medicines, and medically necessary services like durable medical equipment and supplies (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, n.d.). Unfortunately, according to the Medicare National Coverage Determinations Manual (2012) it does not reimburse Complementary and Alternative Medicine services. The author proposes that Complementary and Alternative Medicine should be included in Medicare’s coverage for elderly disabled people as part of an integrative approach to their care. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) offers the elderly......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8


...cloth about the size of a hand towel, with a flexible ribbon of barium sulfate tucked into one corner of the hem. But it promised to eliminate the problem of towels being accidentally left to fester inside the body after surgery, and it garnered attention in high places. After learning about the product through a friend in the summer of 2004, then Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson invited Bolks out to Washington, where they discussed it over steaks at a local restaurant. Thompson liked what he heard. “It made a heck of a lot of sense to me,” Thompson recalled when I spoke to him in January. “I thought, Why hasn’t anybody thought of this before? This should be the standard in the industry.” After leaving the Bush administration the following year, Thompson agreed to sit on the company’s board and began talking up Bolks’s product in speeches. Bolks also landed a contract to sell his towels to the venerable Cleveland Clinic. Nevertheless, Bolks couldn’t manage to make inroads with the GPOs, even when his X-ray-detectable towel was the only one on the market—and soon enough he had competitors. By 2006, Bolks had sunk more than $1 million of his own money into the venture, and was running out of capital. So when a Dallas-based GPO named Broadlane put out a bid for surgical towels that year, he decided to go all out. Not only did he offer his towels at pennies above cost, he also called in his connections, including Thompson, who personally put in a call......

Words: 6651 - Pages: 27

Safe Staffing

...Safe Staffing Examine Nurse-to-Patient Ratios Primary health care organizations such as New York Presbyterian (NYP) are impacted by low nurse-to-patient ratios. The recent implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has required organizations such as NYP to explore many approaches to improve quality and patient outcomes that contain costs. “Numerous studies reveal an association between higher levels of experienced RN staffing and lower rates of adverse patient outcomes” (, 2015, para. 1). For this reason, nurse-to-patient ratios is an issue that needs to be addressed at NYP in order to improve quality healthcare within their organization. The acuity of the unit in which patient care is being provided, should determine the acceptable nurse-to-patient ratio. According to the American Nurses Association (ANA), factors that influence the nurse staffing needs include: patient complexity, acuity, or stability; number of admissions, discharges, and transfers; professional nursing and other staff skill level and expertise; physical space and layout of the nursing unit; availability of or proximity to technological support or other resources ("Optimal Nurse Staffing," 2015). Currently, New York is one of only fourteen states that addresses the nurse staffing issue in hospitals. New York State requires organizations such as NYP to disclose their nurse-to-patient staffing ratios to the public; however the state does not require a......

Words: 3851 - Pages: 16


...consider participation. * Obtaining the voluntary agreement of subjects to take part in the study. While the subject may agree to participate in the study, subjects may withdraw at any time. Part of the ongoing nature of the consent process is verifying the subject's continued interest in participating in the study. * Making plans for the provision of new information to be shared with former subjects, even after the study ends. There is consensus regarding the importance of informed consent. Informed consent is a demonstration of how investigators and those involved in human subjects research show respect to research subjects, and it is mandated by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) at 45 CFR 46 and the Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 50*. The regulation was developed to: * Protect human subjects/volunteers. * Ensure that potential study subjects clearly understand the benefits and risks associated with their participation in a study. * Provide the potential study subjects with all information needed to reach a decision on whether or not to participate in a research study. *The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is published in the Federal Register, a publication of the Federal Government that codifies the general and permanent rules of executive departments and agencies. There are 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. The CFR is updated once each calendar year and is issued on a quarterly basis. The......

Words: 3525 - Pages: 15


...Plants and gardens have a greater purpose than simply to be an eye catching source of food. While mainstream medicine largely continues to deny the inherent healing capacity of natural plants and herbs, the insect world is abuzz with activities that confirm the plant world to be nature's medicine cabinet. According to a new study published in the journal Ecology Letters, the Monarch butterfly routinely uses medicinal plants to help its offspring resist disease and infection. Researchers observed that Monarch butterflies prefer to lay their egg larvae on milkweed leaves, so they decided to investigate why this is the case. They discovered that milkweed plants contain vital compounds that help the larvae to stay healthy. "We have shown that some species of milkweed, the larva's food plants, can reduce parasite infection in monarchs," explained Jaap de Roode, an evolutionary biologist at Emory University, and author of the study. "[W]e have also found that infected female butterflies prefer to lay their eggs on plants that will make their offspring less sick." There are many types of milkweed plants, and some contain very high levels of cardenolides. Cardenolides are toxic to predators, but safe for Monarch butterflies. So when Monarch butterflies eat milkweed rich in the chemical, or lay their larvae on it, they build up a natural resistance to invading predators. The same chemical also helps to stop parasites that can develop in the butterflies' intestines and kill......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

mrskeptiz | Konsol Oyunlar | Sweetheart