Scaling Techniques and Its Importance

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ototo
Words 1262
Pages 6
SCALING TECHNIQUES AND IT’S IMPORTANCE

Scaling describes the procedures of assigning numbers of various degrees of option, attitude and other concepts. This can be done in two ways viz, (i) making a judgment about some characteristic of an individual and then placing him directly on a scale that has been defined in terms of that characteristic and (ii) constructing questionnaires in such a way that the score of individual’s responses assigns him a place on a scale. It may be stated here that a scale is a continuum, consisting of the highest point (in terms of some characteristic e.g. preference, favourableness, etc) and the lowest point along with several intermediate points between these two extreme points. These scale point positions are so related to each other that when the first point happens to be the highest point, the second point indicates a higher degree in terms of a given characteristic as compared to the third point and the third point indicates a higher degree as compared to the forth and so on

Scale classification base
Scaling procedures may be broadly classified on one or more of the followings:-
(1) Subject orientation
(2) Response form
(3) Degree of subjectivity
(4) Scale properties
(5) Number of dimension
(6) Scale construction techniques

Importance of scaling techniques
We now take up some of the important scaling techniques often used in the context of research specially in context of social or business research.

i. Rating scales: The rating scale involves qualitative description of a limited number of aspects of a thing or of traits of a person .when we use rating scale (or categorical scales), we judge an object in absolute terms against some specified criteria i.e; we judge properties of objects without reference to other similar objects. These ratings may be in such form as “like –dislike” “above average,…...

Similar Documents

Importance of

...Between the 12th and 19th centuries, feudal Japan had an elaborate four tier class system. Unlike European feudal society, in which the peasants (or serfs) were at the bottom, the Japanese feudal class structure placed merchants on the lowest rung. Confucian ideals emphasized the importance of productive members of society, so farmers and fishermen had higher status than shop-keepers in Japan. At the top of the heap was the samurai class. The Samurai Class: Feudal Japanese society was dominated by the samurai warrior class. Although they made up only about 10% of the population, samurai and their daimyo lords wielded enormous power. When a samurai passed, members of the lower classes were required to bow and show respect. If a farmer or artisan refused to bow, the samurai was legally entitled to chop off the recalcitrant person's head. Samurai answered only to the daimyo for whom they worked. The daimyo, in turn, answered only to the shogun. There were about 260 daimyo by the end of the feudal era. Each daimyo controlled a broad area of land, and had an army of samurai. The Farmers / Peasants: Just below the samurai on the social ladder were the farmers or peasants. According to Confucian ideals, farmers were superior to artisans and merchants because they produced the food that all the other classes depended upon. Although technically they were considered an honored class, the farmers lived under a crushing tax burden for much of the feudal era. During the reign......

Words: 1404 - Pages: 6

Scaling Study

...Scaling Study Developing and conducting a survey is a very technical process. Any researcher that takes on a process like this must be careful to develop proper and appropriate questions for the survey to collect the most valid and reliable data. Conducting and presenting the survey is just as crucial as the creation of the questions. If either of these areas is neglected or not handled appropriately the entire research process is wasted. The purpose this paper is to critique a survey I created and issued to 10 random individuals. Included in the critique of this survey is a discussion of the reliability and validity of the survey and the results collected. Survey and Content The survey under review is a short eight questions developed to understand general health of individuals through diet and exercise. The survey was completed using two forms of questions. The first type question falls under the definition of a rating scale. “Rating scale is used when participants score an object or indicant without making a direct comparison to another object or attitude” (Cooper, Schindler, 2011, Ch. 12). Under these guidelines individuals were asked to answer questions pertaining to how often they exercise, how often they eat each day, and how often they eat fast food. These questions are created so there can be no comparisons made, but rather a numerical value selection. The second sets of questions are a version of ranking scale inquiries. “Ranking scales......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Techniques

...Natalie Reynolds English 1102 section 97 Mandi Sena January 22, 2014 Techniques Gothic Literature, sometimes referred to as Gothic horror, is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. The Gothic literature feel is achieved through manipulating literature elements to portray the story or poem how the writer/speaker wants. There are ten main elements that can be manipulated; the setting, the environment, atmosphere, protagonists, emotions, damsels in distress, foreboding, the supernatural, decay of characters, and finally, drama. When writing gothic literature one must use their personal techniques in manipulating the elements to achieve the gothic qualities desired; William Faulkner, Edgar Allan Poe, and Sylvia Plath all use different techniques in their writing and this is what gives each of their pieces of literature a different feel. For example in William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily he uses techniques unique to himself. Such as, writing the story in an alternating kind of way to help the readers to carry the action forward in their own minds by suggesting doubt in the story line, this allows us to be surprised at the end when we find out what really happens. This back and forth style of writing is prominent throughout the whole story, but the biggest example is that Emily starts out dead and then the writer proceeds to continue the rest of the story from back when she was alive. His story also has a creepy setting where anything......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4

Scaling Study

...Scaling Study RES/320 Dr. Jeffrey Putnam Scaling Study Developing and conducting a survey is a very technical process. Any researcher that takes on a process like this must be careful to develop proper and appropriate questions for the survey to collect the most valid and reliable data. Conducting and presenting the survey is just as crucial as the creation of the questions. If either of these areas is neglected or not handled appropriately the entire research process is wasted. The purpose this paper is to critique a survey I created and issued to 10 random individuals. Included in the critique of this survey is a discussion of the reliability and validity of the survey and the results collected. Survey and Content The survey under review is a short eight questions developed to understand general health of individuals through diet and exercise. The survey was completed using two forms of questions. The first type question falls under the definition of a rating scale. “Rating scale is used when participants score an object or indicant without making a direct comparison to another object or attitude” (Cooper, Schindler, 2011, Ch. 12). Under these guidelines individuals were asked to answer questions pertaining to how often they exercise, how often they eat each day, and how often they eat fast food. These questions are created so there can be no comparisons made, but rather a numerical value selection. The second sets of questions are a version of ranking scale......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Importance of Quantitative Techniques

...IMPORTANCE OF QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES IN MANAGERIAL DECISIONS *P.Murugesan Abstract The term ‘Quantitative techniques’ refers to the methods used to quantify the variables in any discipline. It means the application of subjects like mathematics and statistics, econometrics and operations research to understand and solve problems.. It is a study of the application of differential calculus, integral calculus and matrix algebra, measures of central tendencies, measures of averages, correlation and regression etc. It also includes the application of the techniques of management science such as Linear programming, Game theory, CPM and PERT analyses to business problems. The relevance and usefulness of Quantitative Techniques in seven functional areas of Management are discussed in this paper. Introduction: Truly, the importance of Quantitative proficiency cannot be over emphasized to Management Professionals! This body of knowledge involving quantitative approaches has been given various names likeBusiness Mathematics, Business Statistics, Operations Research, Decision Science and Management Science. All are concerned with rational approaches to decision making based on the scientific method. For example, consider the following simple mathematical problem: A) “A Mayor of a town wants to improve the bus services between 2 destinations falling within his district. The destinations are 1 hour journey apart and he wants the bus services in such a way that a traveler need not wait for......

Words: 1980 - Pages: 8

Life Changes Scaling for the 1990s

...Life Changes Scaling For The 1990s Introduction * In this experiment, the purpose of it is to reduce all the error samples that were made in the original experiment created by Rahe and Holmes * The original research happened 3 decades ago * Social Readjustment Rating Scale is the creation of the original scaling study compromised with the Schedule of Recent Experience from the first questionnaire that collected the recent changes a person went through information Method * Subjects: 427 volunteers were used to collect data to represent the 43 life changing events * 370 participants were also part of the data that was collected to represent the 44 later developed events * Arithmetic and geometric means were calculated in the second study consisting of 370 participants * Marriage was set to be the module Results * The regression line appeared to be linear, which meant that the LCU that was created in 1995 has increased similarly in magnitude since 1965 * LCU ratings by gender: 13 of the 87 events went passed the 99% confidence limit * The regression linear graph represents a linear correlation, which shows the slope of women’s LCU magnitude was average but greater than men by 17% * LCU ratings by age: when young was compared to middle aged about 4 events went passed the confidence limits * When middle age was compared with older subjects, then about 16 events went passed the confidence limits * When the...

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Comedic Techniques in the Importance of Being Earnest

...Comedic techniques in the importance of being earnest. In the play, Jack, after inventing the name Earnest, and lady Gwendolen falls in love and want to get married. When Jack asks for a hand in marriage from Gwendolen mother, Lady Bracknell, he is turned down because Lady Bracknell knows that Jack was conceived in a handbag at a train depot. Lady Bracknell finds it unnecessary for her daughter to get married to an orphan while there were many noble men around. "You are not down on my list of eligible young men," Lady Bracknell replied to Jack (Wilde). In the play, Lady Bracknell is presented as a snob and overprotective mother. She ironically pocks her nose in other people's business especially when the issues concerns marriage. In this example, comedic element and humor is created through satire and ridicule. This is because there was not way Jack could have changed his life to become noble in the eyes of Lady Bracknell to be granted hand in married for Gwendolen. The comedic elements that have been explained from The Importance of Being Earnest show that that author strives to express real life situation using comedic devices. The development of comedic elements in the play creates humor through the way the audience can relate events in the play to real life situations. There are many instances where the author uses direct humor. For example, that author creates humor through playing on words, reversing sayings, mocking marriages and aristocracy, satirizing women, and......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Comedic Techniques in the Importance of Being Earnest.

...Comedic techniques in the importance of being earnest. In the play, Jack, after inventing the name Earnest, and lady Gwendolen falls in love and want to get married. When Jack asks for a hand in marriage from Gwendolen mother, Lady Bracknell, he is turned down because Lady Bracknell knows that Jack was conceived in a handbag at a train depot. Lady Bracknell finds it unnecessary for her daughter to get married to an orphan while there were many noble men around. "You are not down on my list of eligible young men," Lady Bracknell replied to Jack (Wilde). In the play, Lady Bracknell is presented as a snob and overprotective mother. She ironically pocks her nose in other people's business especially when the issues concerns marriage. In this example, comedic element and humor is created through satire and ridicule. This is because there was not way Jack could have changed his life to become noble in the eyes of Lady Bracknell to be granted hand in married for Gwendolen. The comedic elements that have been explained from The Importance of Being Earnest show that that author strives to express real life situation using comedic devices. The development of comedic elements in the play creates humor through the way the audience can relate events in the play to real life situations. There are many instances where the author uses direct humor. For example, that author creates humor through playing on words, reversing sayings, mocking marriages and aristocracy, satirizing women, and......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Techniques

...------------------------------------------------- Techniques and terms[edit] All social engineering techniques are based on specific attributes of human decision-making known as cognitive biases.[3] These biases, sometimes called "bugs in the human hardware," are exploited in various combinations to create attack techniques, some of which are listed here: Pretexting[edit] Pretexting (adj. pretextual), also known in the UK as blagging or bohoing, is the act of creating and using an invented scenario (the pretext) to engage a targeted victim in a manner that increases the chance the victim will divulge information or perform actions that would be unlikely in ordinary circumstances.[4] An elaborate lie, it most often involves some prior research or setup and the use of this information for impersonation (e.g., date of birth, Social Security number, last bill amount) to establish legitimacy in the mind of the target.[5] This technique can be used to fool a business into disclosing customer information as well as by private investigators to obtain telephone records, utility records, banking records and other information directly from company service representatives. The information can then be used to establish even greater legitimacy under tougher questioning with a manager, e.g., to make account changes, get specific balances, etc. Pretexting can also be used to impersonate co-workers, police, bank, tax authorities, clergy, insurance investigators — or any other individual...

Words: 9621 - Pages: 39

The Importance

...Heraclitus, Democritus, Empedocles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, The Rosicrucian Initiate Degrees (1-9) lessons thread Secret Societies : 15 hours ago, 18 flags Evidence Of Pre-Columbian Trade Between Asia And The Americas Found Ancient & Lost Civilizations : 16 hours ago, 16 flags Monsanto Patents GMO Cannabis General Conspiracies : 4 hours ago, 16 flags U.S. House passes estate tax repeal Degree 6 Duration: 7 months The sixth Initiate degree presents the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual components of health and disease. You will learn specific Rosicrucian healing techniques. Topics include: Health and Illness Physiological Evolution of Humans The Skeleton Digestion and Nutrition Spiritual Dimension of Food Breathing and Respiratory Health Composition of Blood Heart and Circulatory System The Lymph and Lymphatic System Liver, Spleen, kidneys Importance of Water Cell Consciousness and Cellular Health Cerebro‐spinal Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division of the Autonomic Nervous System The Sympathetic Energy Influence of Stress on Digestion and Breathing Sympathetic Ganglions and their Connections Rosicrucian Therapy Disorders associated with the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Ganglions Rosicrucian Treatments Personal Treatment to Restore your Psychic Equilibrium http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread1064310/pg1 US Political Madness : 10 hours ago, 13 flags HEAD of the FBI’s Anthrax......

Words: 4563 - Pages: 19

Importance

...IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN MODERN WORLD In the modern city, education is essential for every child. Education is a preparation for students before entering the society. School play the important role in educates and provoke the talent of the young generation to become a successful person in the future. Parents pinned their hopes, ambitions, and dream on their children. With this in mind, many parents try their best to let their children enroll in high qualification school. High qualification school will provide the good learning facilities, good learning atmosphere and environment to students. According to the historical record, the famous Chinese philosopher Mencius moved home three times due to his mother wants Mencius to improve his education. Besides, Kautilya, he is a philosopher, royal adviser, professor of economics and political science in India. He sufficient emphasis on the importance of education. Another key thing to remember that even a poor family also insists that send their children to school to get an education. In this day and age, provides a good education to every child is a contentious issue. Hence, the three discussion of the importance of education in the modern world is to change people’s life , to improve personal development and to innovative and improve technology. The importance of education is to change people’s Life. According to Anonymous (2012), education not only to get a job and also let people to leading a better future......

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Scaling Challenges

...Scaling Challenge #1: Passing the Hat AS a start-up, executives need to be prepared to wear more than one functional hat to be successful. As you scale, however, you must carefully oversee the process of passing those hats to new executives and managers that join the team. This looks easy on paper (just draw up the new org chart), but it can prove extremely challenging in practice. While it is easy to pass the hat in form, it may not be easy to pass the hat in substance when the on-boarding of the new hat owner is arduous, i.e., big learning curve, lots of important internal relationships, and so forth. As long as the old hat-owner offers greater knowledge and effectiveness in the relevant functional area, everyone in the organization will gravitate to her for decisions and support, regardless of what the new org chart says. The problem can be further exacerbated if the old hat owner isn’t all that willing to pass the hat in the first place or if the old hat owner is too willing and runs away from the responsibility faster than the new executive can get up to speed. Poor hat passing can result in confusion, frustration, conflict, executive turnover and ultimately poor business performance. Hat passing is tricky business that requires the buy-in all of all those affected, a solid foundation of respect between the two hat-passers, and a thoughtful approach to managing the transition. Without these fundamentals in place as you are scaling, you may find that you are dropping......

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Writing Technique

...When it comes to my own personal organization techniques for writing, I tend to use different methods to help me get to where I need to be. I most commonly use brainstorming lists or what I call grocery lists, web maps, and freewriting drafts. When I use lists I start off with just a list of items in a random order, then I organize them by subject/topic, and importance. If I use web maps, I branch off the ideas from one central location, continuously building off a section of the map until I can no longer think of anything else. When I free write, I proceed as if I were writing my first draft, inserting ideas and notes as I go on. I find that as I continue on with this class, my writing has become more organized in a sense that I now put more emphasis on pre-writing. I allow myself a chance to dig deeper into my ideas and notes without skipping ahead to free writing. I do not feel as if my writing per se has become different, but more effective. The great thing about this class is that I learned to ask better questions, for better ways to create notes and brainstorming, as well as adding more finesse to my pre-writing stage by using lists, maps and outlines. These techniques allow me to remain focused on my audience, purpose, and content. These techniques have been beneficial in allowing me to create more balanced and effective writings....

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Business Research Methodology - Discuss the Scaling Techniques Used to Measure the Consumer Attitude, and Justify Your Selection of a Particular Scaling Technique.

...Answer Sheet of this Question paper, contact aravind.banakar@gmail.com www.mbacasestudyanswers.com ARAVIND – 09901366442 – 09902787224 Business Research Methodology   CASE 01: Sintex Industries Limited: Grooming with Increased Demand of Plastic 1. Discuss various stages of the research to launch this research programme 2. Define the research problem 3. Discuss the type of the research design used for this research programme 4. What will be the nature of data for ascertaining consumer attitude? 5. Discuss the scaling techniques used to measure the consumer attitude, and justify your selection of a particular scaling technique. CASE 02: Air Conditioner Industry in India: Systematic Replacement of the Unorganized Sector by the Organized Sector.   1. What will be your sampling frame, appropriate sampling techniques, sample size, and sampling process? 2. Will you be using probability sampling technique or nonprobability sampling technique and why? 3. What will be your plans to control sampling and non -sampling errors to obtain an accurate result? CASE 03:  Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd:  An Independent Economic Think Tank.    Let us consider you as an owner of a marketing research firm and assume that a multinational company firm has contacted you to prepare a detailed report on the consumer electronics market in India.  The report must be prepared in light of the market share for various companies of consumer electronics, future......

Words: 578 - Pages: 3

Aseptic Technique

...This essay it will explain the Aseptic Technique and how it is used to prevent the spread of infection in wounds. It will also give a personal experience of performing the technique. Hart (2004) states the principle of Aseptic Technique is to prevent the spread of micro organisms to wounds and to protects the nurse and patient from healthcare-associated infections (HCIA). The technique used for less invasive procedures such as intravenous drugs and wound care is the Aseptic No-touch Technique (ANTT) (Pratt et al 2007). The key aspects of this skill are consent, preparation and prevention. The nurse must obtain consent from the patient and explain the procedure. The patient must be made comfortable and placed in a suitable position as the technique may take some time to conduct, the nurse must be able to have access to the wound to prevent any additional contamination. ANTT should be carried out in a quite calm environment, cleaning should be done at least half an hour before and adjacent windows should be shut as this allows for airborne contamination to settle (Dietze et al 2001). Preparation is vital for the ANTT, equipment used should be sterile, in date, undamaged and that correct storage has been used (Department of Health DoH 2003). Guidelines on hand washing have been devised by DoH (2005) as it recognises that most HCIAs are spread through inappropriate hand washing. Hands should be washed immediately before and after the ANTT to prevent the spread of......

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Seven Days: Monday - Thursday (Movie) | Bonobono | Torrents