Scie206 Biology Unit 2ip Photosynthesis & Respiration

In: Science

Submitted By ccunnien
Words 1328
Pages 6
Carrie Cunnien
SCIE 206 Biology
January 20, 2013
IP 2 Abstract
Some of the things that will be discussed are how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food we eat. The absence of oxygen some cells and organisms can use glycolysis coupled to fermentation to produce energy to your cells. Cells use enzymes as biological catalysts to increase or accelerate the rate of reactions. Energy, Metabolism, and Cells Photosynthesis envelopes everything we need to sustain life whether directly related or indirectly related. Biology involves a great responsibility for the safety and well-being of all inhabitants of the earth. Our daily lives and the comprehension of what it takes to keep the various life forms alive are very important, (Nahle, N. 2004). First, you will learn what is photosynthesis and aerobic respiration. Secondly, you will learn the role of fermentation in allowing an organism to generate energy for its cells in the absence of oxygen and how does the energy from the sun end up as chemical energy for the anaerobic organism or cell. Lastly, you will learn how enzyme catalyzes a reaction and the three main steps of the cycle of enzyme-substrate interactions plus how enzyme activity is regulated by the cell.
1. Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food you eat.
A. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use energy created from the sunlight; producing and storing sugar (carbohydrate). The conversion of light energy to chemical energy is associated with the photosynthesis process of chlorophyll and the green pigmentation of plants, according to ( 2000). Plant leaves are the most significant focal point of photosynthesis. There are four parts to the plant leaves. The first one is the upper and lower epidermis. The…...

Similar Documents

The Importance of Photosynthesis and Respiration

...The Importance of Photosynthesis and Respiration Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food you eat: Photosynthesis is the process in which certain life forms are able to use sunlight to create energy. This energy is created by making carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Plants release large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere as they produce much more than needed during the photosynthesis process. Aerobic respiration is an important process in life as we know it. This process further breaks down molecules and sugars using oxygen. During this process adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is created, used to store and transfer energy to cells throughout the body. (Aerobic respiration, 2010) Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are both needed for each other to be able to perform their primary functions. One without the other would not work properly. Between both of these processes we receive three main sources; water, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Plants and animals require all three of these in order to live. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are a lot like a circle. Animals need oxygen to live and emit carbon dioxide, while plants need carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates and omit oxygen, thus completing the circle. (Photosynthesis, 2005) During the photosynthesis stage a plant produces oxygen that aerobic respiration will use in order to break molecules, during this process......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Ib Biology Respiration Lab Paper

...Design Lab: Respiration The Effect of Heavy-Duty Exercise on the respiration of Homo Sapiens (Humans) Research Question: What is the effect of heavy-duty exercise (cardiovascular and other activities) on the respiration of humans? Background Information: In this experiment, trials will be conducted consisting of humans run up a set of stairs up and down 3 times as fast as they possibly can in order to put pressure on oxygen need to increase respiration needs. This will test the effect of a set exercise on the respiratory needs of a human. After this, they will have to do a set of 10 push-ups and 15 jumping jacks. If 10 push-ups are not possible, a substitute of 15 curl-ups should be administered instead. Hypothesis: When exercise is complete, the respiratory needs of one human should be significantly higher than it was previous to the exercise. Independent Variable: Human fitness level, exercise set Dependent Variable: How fast the human goes Controlled Variable: Temperature, time for exercise, amount of oxygen in air Materials: * Piece of paper for general observations as well as data recording * 4-6 humans * Timer (ipod, clock, something) * Water (if needed for human) Procedure: 1. Use the stairs next to the Biology classroom, select one human to go first and rotate turns until all humans have gone or until necessary data is gathered 2. Record the rate of exhales of the human (normal breathing) for 30 seconds and any other......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Energy, Metabolism, and Cells – Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

...Biology – Science 206 Energy, Metabolism, and Cells – Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration John Carter August 11, 2013 1. Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food you eat. Photosynthesis can be defined as the process that living organisms such as plants use to translate the sun’s energy into chemical energy. Once the plant has translated the sun’s energy into chemical energy it then releases that energy and makes it readily available to other living things (Vermaas, 2007). Aerobic respiration can be defined as nutrients being converted into useful energy. Respiration allows cells to use the energy stored during the photosynthesis process. It’s the chemical reaction that breaks down the glucose and changes it into a larger amount of Adenosine Triphosphate which is also called ATP (Board, 2012). Plants use sunlight to make ATP for its energy source by creating a series of chemical reactions by producing oxygen as a waste product. Next, animals and human beings eat these plants. The nutrients digested by animals and human beings reverse the process by using the ATP as a source of energy. Our cells use the nutrients from the plants and convert the nutrients in a process that uses oxygen (Board, 2012). Once our bodies have used all the nutrients will be need from those plants our bodies as well as animals release carbon dioxide as waste. Photosynthesis and respiration are both means of......

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Photosynthesis and Respiration

...SCIE206-1303B-07 UNIT 2 IP 2 ‘Photosynthesis and Respiration’ Running Head: Photosynthesis and Respiration 1 Photosynthesis and Respiration The process in which carbon dioxide is transformed into organic compounds from sunlight is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, a natural process, offers every aerobic being on earth oxygen and also assists in maintaining a natural percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere (Cloud, David 2011). Human beings would not exist without this process. Photosynthesis also occurs in algae, plants, and certain bacteria. In contrast, respiration takes glucose (sugar), along with other organic compounds oxidizing them to develop carbon dioxide. Respiration is the metabolic reaction in organic cells, biochemical energy into adenosine triphosphate/ATP. Each cycle depends on the other, in order for the ‘complete cycle’ to transpire. When it comes to receiving energy from the foods we eat, photosynthesis stores the energy and respiration releases it. Both cycles are important to ensure continuous life on earth. Photosynthesis and respiration are connected between plants and animals based on the reactants and products of both pathways by the usage of autotrophs and heterotrophs. An autotroph are organisms the have the ability to manufacture their own food (“Autotroph vs. Heterotroph” n.d.). Heterotroph organisms are essential in respiration and are not......

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Scie206 Unit 2 Db

...these changes would not allow a human to function. Something that would have to be considered for chloroplast to work would be human skin pigmentation. A human’s skin tone would have to be much lighter and probably more of a green pigment color in order for them to soak up the sunlight needed to store and generate energy and food. Then one would need to take into consideration the consequences that would soon follow this such as humans may get more sunburns as well as possibly getting skin cancer. (2008). References: Photosynthetic people, 2008, retrieved from Organelles, 2013, retrieved from Editorial Board, 2012, Biology Words of Wisdom retrieved from

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Biology Lab Unit 2

... |Maintains cell shape, and acts as the transport | | | |system within the cell | |15 |Free ribosome  |The site of protein synthesis | |16 | Smooth endoplasmic reticulum |Contains no ribosomes, lipid synthesis, and drug | | | |detoxification | |17 |Mitochondrion |Produces energy by aerobic respiration | |18 |Vesicles  |Shuttles materials to various destinations within the| | | |cell | |19 |Vesicles  |Shuttles materials to various destinations within the| | | |cell | |20 |Golgi apparatus |Modifies and packages protein and lipids, and | | | ...

Words: 606 - Pages: 3


...Unit 2: Cell Biology SCIE206-1401B-08 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration make one large cycle that sustains life on earth. Through photosynthesis the suns energy is constantly being transformed into glucose, which is a chemical energy. Respiration is the chemical activity that occurs in all plants and animal cells that release the energy from the glucose. Photosynthesis cannot exist with cellular respiration, they are completely linked together in providing the energy through the food we eat. Cloud, D (2012). Photosynthesis and cellular respiration have an inverse relationship, they are opposite of each other. Photosynthesis is the process by which carbon dioxide is converted into compounds from the sunlight. The most frequent compound being glucose (sugar). Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and some bacteria. Editorial Board (2014). Cellular respiration, in contrast takes the glucose (sugar) and other compounds oxidizing them to created carbon dioxide. Each cycle depends on the other in order for the completion to take place. The complete cycle ensures that life continues to exist, both being necessary for living organisms. Cloud, D. (2012). Photosynthesis is a natural process that provides all aerobic creatures on eth with oxygen. Without photosynthesis, humans would not be able to exist. Photosynthesis maintains the natural amount of oxygen in the air. It provides oxygen for life and the process of cellular respirations. Photosynthesis......

Words: 1391 - Pages: 6

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

...relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. o   Write the general formula for photosynthesis. o   Write the general formula for cellular respiration. o Explain the relationship between the two that should be obvious from the formulas. Examine the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. o   Write the general formula for photosynthesis. o   Write the general formula for cellular respiration. o   Explain the relationship between the two that should be obvious from the formulas.   Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are neccesary for all thing living.  Photoautotrphs (organisms) need energy to survive. Some of these organisms are capable of absorbing energy from sunlight and using it to produce energy for all living things.  This ia a continuos cycle.          Photosynthesis captures energy for life on Earth.  It is the process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules for growth.  In this process Light energy is used to convert Carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.  Thus, solar energy is converted into chemical energy.  This reaction is summarized as follows: Carbon dioxide + water ------------> glucose + oxygen                                   Sunlight Energy   Photosynthesis can also be represented using the chemical equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O -------------> C6H12O6 + 6O2                          Sunlight Energy Cellular Respiration......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Biology Unit 1

...Why do organisms need exchange surfaces? • Minerals to maintain water potential and to help enzyme reaction • Nutrients/proteins • Oxygen for aerobic respiration • Water • Glucose as a source of energy • Fats to make membranes and store as energy They also need exchange surfaces to get rid of waste products • CO2 –Respiration • Urea • Ammonia • Plants get rid of oxygen-photosynthesis • Excretion metabolic waste-waste made in cells What does a good exchange surface look like? • Large surface area-provides more space for molecules to pass through-achieved by folding walls and membranes • Thin barrier to reduce diffusion distance Larger organisms need a larger area to exchange more substances Examples of exchange surfaces • Small intestine- where nutrients are absorbed • Liver- where levels of sugars in blood are adjusted • Root hairs of plants-where water/minerals are absorbed • Hyphae of fungi-nutrients are absorbed Lungs Air can pass through the lungs through the nose, along the trachea (windpipe), bronchi and bronchioles. Finally air reaches tiny air filled sacs called alveoli. < Exchange of gases takes place Lungs are protected by ribs. Movement of the ribs with action of diaphragm (layer of muscle under lungs) help to produce breathing movements (ventilation) Oxygen passes from......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Photosynthesis and Respiration and the Links

...Photosynthesis and Respiration and the Links Shawna Smith November 24, 2013 IP2-SCIE206-Biology   Photosynthesis and Respiration and the Links The sun plays a vital role in the survival of life on our planet. We all use its light for many reasons. We use it to create energy for some of our basic needs. There are other ways to create energy for some of our daily life, and other living things can create energy by no light source. The energy is produced by photosynthesis and respiration. This helps the cells in every living organism. Photosynthesis is one of the ways that energy is produced. Photosynthesis is only preformed by plants because they contain chlorophyll. “Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells capture and process the sun’s energy to make this energy available to all living things” (Educational Board [EB], 2012). Photosynthesis happens when the sunlight is captured by the chlorophyll, carbon dioxide enters through the stomata and water enters through the roots. Photosynthesis produces glucose and water. The carbon dioxide is produced by animals which breathe it out and the glucose, which is sugar, is produced by the process of photosynthesis. This production is helpful to both the plants and animals. The oxygen produced as a by-product is used by the animals and humans. The bi-product produced by the animals and humans is used by the plants. They benefit both and help each of them survive. “Photosynthesis occurs in two stages are called the......

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration

...Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Emily Satterstrom AIU student | Photosynthesis | Aerobic Cellular Respiration | Full balanced equation | 6CO2+6H2O+light energy→C6H12O6+6O2 | C6H12O6+6O2→6CO2+6H2O +ATP | Reactants | Carbon Dioxide, Water, and light energy | Glucose and Oxygen | Products | Glucose and Oxygen | Carbon Dioxide, Water, and ATP | Is this reaction endergonic or exergonic? State which one it is. | Photosynthesis is an endergonic reaction. This means it requires energy | Aerobic Cellular Respiration is an exergonic reaction. This means that it gives off energy. | Energy source used | Sunlight | Glucose | Cell organelles involved in the reaction | Chloroplasts | Mitochondria | Role of ATP in the reaction | ATP is synthesized in the light dependant stage and stores energy which is used in the light-independent stage to synthesize glucose. | ATP is produced in the reaction and released as energy. | Photosynthesis The organisms that can use photosynthesis to produce glucose are called photoautotrophs. Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make their own food through photosynthesis. Because of this, autotrophs are considered the producers of the food chain. Eukaryotic plants, algae, and some prokaryotes are all examples of photoautotrophs. [ (Windows to the Universe) ] Aerobic Cellular Respiration The types of organisms that exclusively use aerobic cellular respiration to break......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3


...AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 2 summary notes AQA GCSE Biology Summary Notes For Unit B2 Exam Tuesday th May 13 2014 Page 1 AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 2 summary notes B2.1 Cells and Cell Structures Summary All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes. Cells  Cells are the smallest unit of life.  All living things are made of cells.  Most human cells, like most other animal cells, have the following parts: o nucleus o cytoplasm o cell membrane o mitochondria o ribosomes  Plant and algal cells also have: o cell wall o chloroplasts o permanent vacuole What do these structures do?  Nucleus – controls the activities of the cell.  Cytoplasm – where most of the chemical reactions take place.  Cell membrane - controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.  Mitochondria - where most energy is released in respiration. Page 2 AQA GCSE Biology – Unit 2 summary notes     Ribosomes - where protein synthesis occurs. Cell wall – made of cellulose and strengthens plant cells. Chloroplasts - absorb light energy to make food in plant cells. Permanent vacuole - filled with cell sap in plant cells. Yeast  Yeast is a single-celled organism.  The cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. Bacteria  Bacterium is a single-celled organism.  A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a......

Words: 5886 - Pages: 24

Biology A2 Respiration

...Unit 4: Respiration ATP Point 1: What is metabolism • This refers to the chemical reactions taking place in a C_____. • There are thousands of these occurring in each cell. • To make them easier to understand they are arranged into M__________ pathways. • Reactions releasing energy are C__________ reactions (e.g. respiration); those using energy are A__________ reactions (e.g. photosynthesis). Point 2: How are respiration and photosynthesis linked? 1. Respiration is the R__________ of photosynthesis. 2. Respiration is an O__________ reaction whereas photosynthesis is a R___________ reaction, as shown here: Photosynthesis/endothermic/reduction 6CO2 + 6H2O + [Energy] C6H12O6 + 6O2 + [Energy] Respiration/exothermic/oxidation Question: What is oxidation and what is reduction? Point 3: What is ATP? • ATP consists of three P___________ groups, a R________ sugar and A____________. Draw a molecule of ATP in the space below: • ATP provides the I______________ source of energy for biological reactions in all organisms, it is said to be U_____________. • When energy is released the body does not want to use it up all at once, otherwise it might lose a lot of it as ________. • Energy is released from the B_______ between the phosphate groups in a single H_____________ reaction. It can be released it in S_______, U___________ amounts. ...

Words: 2154 - Pages: 9

Organismic Biology - Tutorial 4 (Photosynthesis: the Basis of Life)

...Tutorial #4 -- Photosynthesis: the basis of life ____________________________________________________________ ___________________ 1. Basics of photosynthesis: a. Review the anatomy of the leaf and the cellular locations and organelles involved in photosynthesis. A leaf consists of waxy cuticle layer with stoma surrounded by guard cells, xylem vascular bundle, and a mesophyll. The chloroplast is located within the mesophyll cells. The stroma and thylakoids are located inside the chloroplast. The thylakoids contain chlorophyll. The organelles that participate in photosynthesis are chloroplast, thylakoids and chlorophyll in photosystem I and II. b. Describe and explain the role of oxygen in photosynthesis. The role of oxygen in photosynthesis is that during the light reaction, the light that is absorbed by the chloroplast in photosystem II, excites an election, therefore making the electron travel through a series of electron carriers to produce ATP. So to replace the electron lost through this process, water molecules are split into oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen is then released into the atmosphere. c. Describe and explain the role of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. The role of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis is that during the Calvin cycle, CO2 that enters the cell is combined with RuBP. This molecule is extremely unstable and because of that it splits from a 6 carbon molecule to a 2 carbon molecule through series of reactions and with ATP and NADPH......

Words: 1925 - Pages: 8

Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Lab

...Name _________________________________ Date _____________ Period ______ Lab: Investigating Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Background: All organisms are dependent on a healthy carbon dioxide-oxygen balance. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are key processes in maintaining this balance. Plants, through the process of photosynthesis, use energy absorbed from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce sugars and oxygen. Animals and plants, through the process of cellular respiration, use oxygen and sugars to produce carbon dioxide, water, and the energy needed to maintain life. Purpose: To determine how carbon dioxide cycles through a biological system by performing the “Carbon Transfer Through Snails and Elodea” lab activity. Procedure: 1. Read through the background information and purpose. Create your own question for what you are investigating in this experiment. a. Problem (in question form): How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? 2. Obtain 8 test tubes of equal size/volume and number the test tubes 1-8. Fill each test tube with approximately 30 mL of deionized water. 3. Add enough bromothymol blue (BTB) indicator to solution to each test tube to change the water to a green color (about 3 mL). 4. What is Bromothymol Blue? Why is the BTB in the test tube green (Hint: recall the teacher demonstration)? Bromothymol blue is an indicator that changes color when carbon dioxide is present. Green......

Words: 1222 - Pages: 5

マイリスト | Otome no Sainou | Javiera Mena - Otra Era