Science Foundations

In: Science

Submitted By khuie
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Objectives: 1. When science defines evolution as "Descent with modification", what does that mean? (this will be explained more fully in class, but give it your best shot). Refers to the passing on of traits from a parent to an offspring. The passing of genes is not always exact. 2. What is a phylogeny, and what do each of the branching points represent? A phylogeny is used to represent a “family tree” of groups of closely related species. 3. What is a clade? A clade is a group of organisms that includes all the descendants of a common ancestor and that ancestor. 4. How does looking at the history of life as a tree differ from looking at it as a ladder? When looking at the history of life, a tree is the most correct way to read the information from. If reading it in a ladder form, the data will be slightly skewed because they stack on top of each other even when a few subjects should be on the same line. We would read it as them evolving at different times. 5. What does a Shared Derived Trait mean, and how are they used with Phylogenies? A shared derived trait meant in terms of categorizing organisms into groups of shared characters, which is where two lineages have in common, and a derived character is one that evolved in the lineage leading up to a clade. They are used within phylogenies to group together into less inclusive clades. 6. When did the following events occur: * First fish 500 millions of years ago * First dinosaurs 500 million of years ago * Extinction of the dinosaurs 7. What is a population? A population is a group of organisms that interbreed with each other; they share the same genealogy. 8. What is microevolution (what does it have to do with allele frequencies)? Microevolution is evolution on a small scale with a single population. It is a change in gene frequencies…...

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