In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By MANAF
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Baruch Spinoza was born a Jew in Amsterdam in 1632. His religious opinions caused his expulsion from the synagogue. He became associated with the Christian circle after his expulsion though he did not profess Christianity. His whole life was spent in Holland and Hague. He was always poor and withdrawn and he earned his living by polishing lenses. He was still young when he died in 1677. He was a rationalist, determinist and a pantheist. Spinoza’s philosophy was profoundly influenced by Descartes.
His writings were mainly in Latin with few in Dutch. The most important of his works include the brief treatise of God, Man and his happiness, the tractacus theologico-politico, the cogitata metaphysica and, above all, his masterwork, published after his death: the ethica ordine geometric demonstrate.
In our presentation, we will discuss his metaphysics and on his metaphysics we look at what is substance, substance-monism, God and the world, and communication between substances. We will look at his ethics and on his ethics we will consider his work on Man. We will discuss his epistemology and on his epistemology we will look at levels of knowledge. We will then proceed to criticize his philosophy and finally make our conclusion.

Spinoza follows in the path established by Descartes. He adopts Descartes’ situation as his starting point. For Descartes, substance was understood as that which has need of nothing else in order to exist; strictly speaking, only God could be substance. Afterward Descartes came across other substances which did not need other creatures in order to exist, although they did need God; these were the res cogitans and res extansa. Spinoza accepts this quite rigorously, and defines substance in this way: “by substance I understand, that which exists in itself and is conceived through itself, that is, that thing the concept of…...

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