Skeletal System

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The Skeletal System
 Parts of the skeletal system
 Bones (skeleton)

 Joints
 Cartilages

 Ligaments

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functions of Bones

 Support of the body
 Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles  Storage of minerals and fats

 Blood cell formation
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 Two basic types of bone tissue

 Compact bone
 Homogeneous

 Spongy bone
 Small needle-like pieces of bone  Many open spaces
Figure 5.2b
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape

Figure 5.1
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones
 Long bones
 Typically longer than wide  Have a shaft with heads at both ends

 Contain mostly compact bone
 Examples: Femur, humerus

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone
 Diaphysis
 Shaft

 Composed of compact bone  Epiphysis
 Ends of the bone

 Composed mostly of spongy bone
Figure 5.2a
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Structures of a Long Bone
 Periosteum
 Outside covering of the diaphysis

 Fibrous connective tissue membrane
 Sharpey’s fibers  Secure periosteum to underlying bone

 Arteries
 Supply bone cells with nutrients
Figure 5.2c
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Structures of a Long Bone
 Medullary cavity
 Cavity of the shaft

 Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults
 Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants

Figure 5.2a
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings…...

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