Socrates

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By QUEENDEE68
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Approaching Philosophy Deirdre Cuyler AIU ONLINE

Metaphysics: Metaphysics is a derivative of philosophy that examines the fundamental configuration and nature of that which is genuine and authentic (real). At the existing time, we as mortals have no forthright way of discerning what is real. Reality consists of everything we encounter. Our thoughts, perceptions, feelings, dreams, and even delusions, living and dying; are all involved in this experience we know as realness. The physical world is more real than the spiritual or psychological world, because its not a world of fabrication or imagery, yet an ultimately real atmosphere for the mortal spirit. The spirit world is an independent domain of reality, however it fuses with the physical world. Yes, there is a such thing as a soul. In mortals the soul is what makes us mortals, the body acts as the armor for the soul. The soul cannot survive outside of the body. Each individual has free will it is our preferences/decisions that influence us to the passages that we are on and the passages that we will acquire in the future. Our free will is what establishes our fate.
Epistemology:
Epistemology is a category of philosophy that researches the basis, character, means, and restrictions of mortal ability. Anything can be known, its comprehending and perceiving the aspect of what is known that is the troublesome part. The basis for knowledge is genuine ideas and standards and rational approaches for utilizing those ideas and standards. It is innate, because the adequacy we have to learn essentially occurs at birth. All knowledge appears to have a subjective component in the perception that there should be a knowing subject for anything to be known. The use, quest, and the…...

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Socrates

...youth will be making the decisions later on down the road after all of the elders die off. This is the reason why the citizens are very concerned about Socrates. The elders believe that Socrates is going to be the reason why the youth will be corrupted. But Socrates does not see how he could be the reason for the corruption of the youth because he always claims to not have any knowledge of anything. In Plato’s The Euthyphro, Socrates has a conversation with Euthyphro about what piety and impiety is. Socrates wanted Euthyphro to be his teacher and teach him everything he knows because he claims that he knows all there is to be known about what piety and impiety is. Therefore, Euthyphro teaches him everything that he knows about what it means to be pious and impious. After he starts to explain everything to him Socrates is not satisfied with any of his definitions that he has proposed to him, so Socrates starts to question him even more, and ask for a better definition. This back and forth conversation goes on for a while, and from Socrates questioning Euthyphro so much, Euthyphro himself starts to question everything that he knows about what it means to be pious and impious. Euthyphro was going to prosecute his very own father for unintentionally killed Euthyphro’s slave that killed one of his father’s slaves. After Socrates questioned him so many different times about what it means to be pious impious it seems that Euthyphro has come to the understanding of how......

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...9 October 2012 Socrates Obituary Assignment Don Hodges, The Athens Daily Socrates (469-399 B.C.E.) ATHENS- The city of Athens is one step closer to aspiring back to the great city we once were as the antagonist Socrates is dead. The seventy-one year old was sentenced to death by the Athenian courts days ago on charges of impiety and corruption of youth. A native of Athens, he was born the son of the stonemason Sophroniscus and Phainarete. The spouse of Xanthippe and father of three he lived a rather abusive home life. This is possibly due to another relationship in which he cared for the concubine Myrto. Initially a prosperous infantry man in the athenian army he left Athens in order to fight in the Peloponnesian War. Distinctive in war, he fought in many battles, notably the battle of Delium in 424 (B.C.E.) where he was remarkable in the field despite the loss. Socrates was an adamant citizen and believed all people should follow the law and abide by their duties to the state. He was later scrutinized by the popular assembly when he was the only person to vote against trying the Athenian commanders, who left survivors at sea, as a whole instead of individually as the law directed. After the war he sept through the cracks of society as he started to practices his own techniques of philosophy and teaching. Through personal experience and the knowledge of others he developed a method of deciphering the practical and moral understandings of life. Socrates was a......

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...This paper will argue that during “The trial and Death of Socrates”, Socrates could have given better arguments for his defense. First it will outline the prejudices or accusations Socrates has to face during his trial. It will then show how Socrates acted as tough he wanted to lose the case and finally it will conclude explaining the arguments Socrates could have given in order to be acquitted. During the first speech (18a-19b) Socrates has to overcome two different types of prejudices: the old prejudice against Socrates set by the plays of Aristophanes and the new prejudices that included impiety charged by Meletus as well as the corruption of the youth. In fact more than once is Socrates confused for someone else. Aristophanes is responsible for latter but it is reconstructed by Meletus as including both impiety and corruption and Socrates is portrayed as a corrupt teacher .the first charge of impiety also originates with Aristophanes but Meletus confuses Socrates with the atheistic Anaxagoras when he describes Socrates as seeking to study the heavens (18a) the second charge of corruption is also in Aristophanes' Clouds but confuses Socrates with Protagoras. This led to confusion (18e) of Socrates with other sophists like Gorgias, Prodicus, and Hippias. The new prejudice against Socrates really is because of the Socratic paradox (20c-21a): “he knows nothing and only in this he claims to be wise “ this paradox aroused hatred against him (21b, 23ab), even though he...

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Socrates

...Socrates Socrates was accused of many things in the Athens market. Socrates was accused of being a man who makes the worse argument into the stronger argument. A man who knows about the heavens and earth and therefore any one who believe this must not believe in the gods. Socrates was accused of being an atheist. Most of the people that followed him around his quest were inquisitive. Where as most adults would walk by Socrates with his “annoying question” the youth stopped to see what he had to say. The youth became his followers when he went out to ask questions that undermined society. Therefore, Socrates was accused of corrupting the youth. I do not believe that Socrates was guilty. For the fact that he was not responsible for the way, other people used what he said. Socrates is the seeker of self-knowledge. He poses the question, “how can I know about the world if I do not know who I’m”. Then the society says, “know thyself”. These two sayings sound alike but society has something else in mind, know thyself means that you must know your place in society. Socrates wanted people to find out who they were by themselves and not let society tell them who they were. You have to know how you think and act in certain situation to know yourself. Knowing yourself in a sense helps you in fact know the world. Socrates might have believed it takes time to know yourself rather than just saying you know who you are. Therefore, Socrates went out to find an answer to the......

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Socrates

...03-31-12 Socrates was accused of denying the gods and of corrupting the young. The first of these charges rested upon the fact that he supposed himself to be guided by a divine sign. The second, Xenophon tells us, was supported by a series of particular allegations: (a) that he taught his associates to despise the institutions of the state, and especially election by lot; (b) that he had numbered amongst his associates Critias and Alcibiades, the most dangerous of the representatives of the oligarchical and democratically parties respectively; (c) that be taught the young to disobey parents and guardians and to prefer his own authority to theirs. The false images of Socrates arose because people misunderstood his true activity. Socrates explains this activity by relating a story about the Delphic Oracle. The Saying of the Delphic Oracle- A friend of Socrates' went to the Oracle and asked the priestess "Who is the wisest of mortals?" and the priestess replied: "Socrates is the most wise." The Testing of the Delphic Oracle - After some hesitation, he sought to show the saying wrong by finding someone wiser than he. He began to question various people, including politicians, poets, and craftsmen.. The Truth of the Delphic Oracle - After "testing" the saying of the god, Socrates became aware of the truth of the saying that "Socrates is most wise" -- it can be expressed as follows: Socrates was most wise because he was Aware of his ignorance. In the course of Socrates'......

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...Corc. 1110: Classical cultures Socrates’ death Socrates is brought to trial because he is being accused from three different charges. According to his accusers, he made the worst arguments the stronger, he was wrong to believe in others gods than the ones from Athens, he corrupted the youth of Athens. Even though he proved that none of these accusations were true and that should not be convicted from any charges, he was tried and sentenced to death. However, Socrates resigned his sentence because he believed in the laws of Athens ,the will of the gods, spirits and in the immorality of his soul. Socrates during his conversation with Crito, who is trying to convince Socrates to escape into exile instead of staying at prison waiting for his day of death, explains the obligations that citizen have to the state. He says that one must respect the state into one is born and do what it demands to do as if it is their own parents because the state acts as a parent when it gives a place to grow up, live, protection and education . So, one “must either persuade it or obey its orders, and endure in silence whatever It instructs you to endure, whether blows or bonds, and if it leads you into war to be wounded or killed you must obey”( Plato, 51-b). One cannot break a law because it will hurt the state then it will show that the law has some weakness and that the government has no type of power over it. The city of Athens......

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...Aristophanes portrays Socrates as a Sophist: a duplicitous charlatan eager to take peoples' money for teaching them to flout the laws and defy moral norms. The conflation of Socrates with the Sophists is based on a superficial similarity between the interests of Socrates and the sophists concerning education and virtue, but which fails to distinguish between the moral relativism of the Sophists and the belief in absolute moral standards held by Socrates (and his puppet-master Plato). The term "sophist"" is derived from the Greek words sophos and sophia which are usually translated as "wise" and "wisdom". The Sophists were itinerant teachers who claimed to teach wisdom; more specifically, Protogoras, one of the first to willingly identify himself as a Sophist, stated that he taught one how to take "proper care of his personal affairs, so that he may be manage his own household, and also of the State's affairs, so as to become a real power in the city, both as speaker and man of action." (Protogoras 318e-319a). Socrates reinterprets Protogoras' statement as a claim to make students into good citizens, and Protogoras readily agrees. Socrates then presents two objections to the claim that one can learn how to be a good citizen by studying with a teacher. First, Socrates notes that, while an expert is consulted in technical matters such as architecture or shipbuilding, no special expertise is demanded in order to participate in government. Second, Socrates observes that "the......

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...Taking Socrates meaning into account, “The unexamined life is not worth living.” How might that apply to our lives and culture today? When I reflect on the Socrates statement I believe it follows logical implication with a persons assumption or consequence. Free speech is what our culture is today I would like to know that when a person tells me something he or she is speaking the truth, as a child of God I know his word is true because he said it is. Each person views life differently than the other unless you follow Jesus Christ and his ways, which are set firm in his word. According to Mark B. Woodhouse his book “A Preface to Philosophy”. He stated two beliefs logically imply each other when the truth of one requires the truth of the other. Do I believe Socrates statement the “Unexamined life is not worth living” is true? I personally go both ways with his statement I agree we should examine life especially if were a Christian for example if there are sins in our life that needs to be taken care of so we can move forward from the bondage that sin can have in our life, we should do that so our heart is pure before God and he will forgive us of our sins. As God said in 1John 4:1-6 we should test the spirit first before making any decision, so we can make the right choice, which will have a positive outcome. Word Count 325 words with intro and 251 without...

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...My topic is on the Athenian Philosopher, Socrates. Socrates who was born in 470 B.C. to a sculptor and a midwife was sentenced to death in 399 B.C. on charges for corrupting the minds of the youth and for the teachings of other gods other than the official gods of Athens. Socrates had taught many Athenians the wisdom of philosophy and that includes his best-known student, Plato. Socrates mission was to “take the raw, unrefined ideas of his contemporaries and hammer away at their opinions, removing what was unclear or erroneous, until he gradually achieved a closer approximation to the truth.” (The Philosophical Journey, Lawhead, Pg. 18) Socrates’ method of doing philosophy of asking questions is now an important technique in education; the Socratic Method or Socratic questioning. These methods undergo seven stages that continually move toward a greater understanding of the truth. Socrates used this method to weed out the incorrect understandings and find a clearer picture of the true answer. Another skillful techniques Socrates used was the use of reduction as absurdum, which is another form of argument which means “reducing to an absurdity.” Socrates to me is an important figure in the world of philosophy because he created a form of arguments and questions that we use in our everyday lives that help us achieve a clearer picture of the truth. His methods of asking questions have opened up many doors in the field of philosophy. It has given us a way of life when it comes to...

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...the Crito, Socrates makes some surprisingly strong claims about the moral authority of the state, which might even seem to be inconsistent both with another fundamental claim he makes in the Crito and with certain claims he makes in the Apology. I shall argue that although these claims seem to be in some tension with each other, the crucial claims about the authority of the state in the Crito can plausibly be interpreted in such a way as to remove any real inconsistency with the other claims. The first, rather striking claim about the moral authority of the state occurs at 51b of the Crito. Socrates argues that, because of the state's role as a provider of security, education, and various important social institutions (such as marriage), the citizens of the state are its "offspring and servants"; and from this he concludes that citizens are subordinate to the state and its laws to such an extent that if a citizen ever disagrees with the state's laws or orders, he "must either persuade it or obey its orders," even if the latter amounts to suffering death. The implication for his own case is clear: Socrates had tried to persuade the court of his innocence and of the injustice of his execution (as detailed in the Apology), but he had failed; therefore, he argues, he must now obey the court and accept his death sentence--even though he still thinks that he is in the right on this matter. The second, closely related claim, comes only a few paragraphs later, in 51e and 52.......

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...2012 Greek and Roman Civilizations – “What happened to Socrates?” The exact date of Socrates’ birth is not known but is believed he was born sometime around 470 B.C. in Athens, Greece. He is believed to have earned a living as a mason and was married with three children. Socrates was also a philosopher but there is debate on whether he did or didn’t receive payment from teaching students. Socrates was considered poor by Greek standards and showed little or no interest in his own children. He was devoted to philosophizing with other boys of Athens. By all accounts, there are no writings by Socrates so information about him and his life is garnered by the writings of some his famous students, one of which was Plato, and contemporaries such as Aristophanes. Life in Ancient Greece was volatile and there were numerous power struggles. It was during these controversial times that battles between the Tyrants and the Aristocrats were also being waged. Athens had been defeated during the Peloponnesian War and was undergoing drastic political turmoil during the time of Socrates. Liberalism and democracy was being brought to Athens largely because of Pericles. The Tyrants wanted Socrates to arrest Leon of Salamis so he could be executed and his assets seized. Socrates neither arrested Leon nor warned him of the Tyrants plan. The citizens of Athens viewed Socrates and his teachings as problematic when Socrates refused to carry out this order. The people were......

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...of the offender’s wrong-doing Socrates, in his conviction from the Athenian Jury, was both innocent and guilty as charged. In Plato's Five Dialogues, accounts of events ranging from just prior to Socrates entry into the courthouse up until his taste of hemlock, both points are stand for. Socrates in dealing with moral law was not guilty of the crimes he was accused of by Meletus. Socrates was only guilty as charged because his peers had concluded him as such. The laws didn't find Socrates guilty; Socrates was guilty because his jurors forced the laws. The commandment couldn't put in force itself. Socrates was accused of humiliating Athen childhood, not believing in the gods of the city and creating his own gods. Socrates aims to defend his principles to the five hundred and one person jury. Finally, the Crito, and story of Socrates' final discussion with his good friend Crito, Socrates is offered an opportunity to escape the prison and his death sentence. As is known, Socrates rejected the suggestion. It is in the Euthyphro and the Apology that it can be assume that Socrates is not guilty as charged, he had done nothing wrong and he properly defended himself. However, in the Crito, it is shown that Socrates is guilty only in the interpretation and enforcement of Athens laws through the court system and its jurors. Socrates accusations of being offensive are also seen as being treasonous. Because of its connection with the death of Socrates, hemlock is one of the most......

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...ethical and moral nature was Socrates. Born in Athens in 460BC, his fundamental interest in philosophy was purely ethical. He is said to be the founder of moral philosophy, answering questions related to right or wrong and how one should live. He believed that answers to questions as such had a profound effect on how one lives.  Socrates was considered a moral optimist. The philosophy holds that man is inherently good. Quoting a philosophy paper issued by the University of Uyo, moral optimism employs the reasoning that “if anything contrary to goodness occurs, then something must have gone wrong somewhere and it will be wise to situate it in a context. But without this external influence, man is naturally good and this should be taken at face value. In the same vein, the world is so good and nothing better could be thought of.” One theory of his which exposes his moral optimism is found in the dialogue Protagoras. He philosophises about akrasia, that is, lacking self-restraint, and going against one’s better judgement. He described akrasia as being absurd. Socrates finds it hard to understand how one goes against what he deems to be good, especially after employing reason and logic. He believes that “no one goes willingly toward the bad” (358d), and wrong doings are nothing more than a consequential product of ignorance. Actions that go against what is best are only a product of being ignorant of facts or knowledge of what is best or good.  Socrates’ description of the......

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...Reasons for Socrates to Resist the Death Penalty: Name: Course: Date: Introduction: Socrates was a well renowned Athenian philosopher many years before his trial. He is actually considered a great founder in western philosophy. He was a very distinctive and typical individual with extraordinary teachings. It is believed that his teachings were very different from those of other philosophers in Greece since his ideas differed with the rightful societal beliefs. This resulted to hatred from the people. According to him, a useless life is one that is not examined. He put a lot of emphasis on the obedience of the state likening it to the obedience a son would have for his father. He was common for taking children through lectures of coming up with arguments to justify the reason for beating his father. Socrates was later accused of corrupting youth groups and godlessness. He was then convicted to death by taking poison which he obeyed as a way of following his teaching on obedience to the law. If Confucius would have believed in a life after death, he would probably have agreed with Socrates to have the law obeyed and kill himself. Socrates, in his day of execution explains that soul is the main form of an individual. Soul does not die and is eternal and does not change. Just the same way it brings life, so must it not die despite the death of the body. Soul is therefore termed as immortal. He feels that dying does not destroy who he really is since in real sense, he will not be......

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