Stm, Ltm

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Katiesun
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Sensory memory

The sense organs have a limited ability to store information about the world in a fairly unprocessed way for less than a second. The visual system possesses iconic memory for visual stimuli such as shape, size, colour and location (but not meaning), whereas the hearing system has echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Coltheart et al. (1974) have argued that the momentary freezing of visual input allows us to select which aspects of the input should go on for further memory processing. In this visual modality, information that enters the sensory store will be eliminated from the store within several hundred milliseconds (Baddeley, 1966). The existence of sensory memory has been experimentally demonstrated by Sperling (1960) using a tachistoscope.
Short-term memory

Information is retained acoustically and visually long enough to use it, e.g. looking up a telephone number and remembering it long enough to dial it. Peterson and Peterson (1959) have demonstrated that STM last approximately between 15 and 30 seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while Miller (1956) has found that STM has a limited capacity of around 7+ or −2 ‘chunks’ of information. STM also appears to mostly encode memory acoustically (in terms of sound) as Baddeley (1966) has demonstrated, but can also retain visuospatial images. However in many cases STM can be at a semantic level. In addition to using the short-term store (STS) as the primary memory device when desired for certain tasks, such as remembering a telephone number after looking it up, the STS fulfills various other functions. Instead of the memory system having to pay moment-to-moment attention to the environment to account for all environmental changes, the (STS) serves as a buffer and separates the environment from the memory system. It also functions as a working memory in which alterations of information can…...

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The Multi-Store Model

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Outline and Evaluate the Multi – Store Model of Memory ( 12 Marks )

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The Effect of Chinese Characters’ Syllable on the Capacity of Stm

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Memory

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Multi-Store Model

...AO1: Shriffin et al proposed the Multi-Store Memory model (MSM), a structural model composed of 3 separate stores: Sensory memory (SM), Short-term memory (STM) and Long-term memory (LTM). The sensory memory receives constant information from environmental stimuli through the senses. It stays in the SM for short periods because it receives little attention. However, if attention is focused on these stimuli, it becomes processed into the STM. Rehearsal maintains information in the STM but can be forgotten quickly due to limited duration (decay) or displacement of new information due to limited capacity. Through maintenance rehearsal, information is transferred to the LTM. The LTM has unlimited capacity and duration depending on the processing of information. While the LTM encoding is mainly semantic the STM encoding is auditory with a capacity of 7 +/- 2 items and duration of up to 18 seconds. AO2: The model has been criticised for lacking ecological validity. This is because the evidence for the model primarily comes from meaningless verbal data rather than memory concerned with real life. The MSM can be argued to be reductionist for oversimplifying memory structure. The model assumes that short-term and long-term stores are unitary: contrary evidence from the working memory model has demonstrated that short-term memory is divided into multiple components. Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) study supports the role of rehearsal. 24 participants had to......

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Outline and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory

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Multi Store Model

...separate unitary stores of sensory, short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) and two processes (attention and rehearsal). All information passes through the system in a linear fashion. External stimuli/ information first enter the sensory store directly from our five senses. It remains in the sensory store for a maximum duration of around 2 seconds before it decays and is replaced with new information. If information in the sensory store has been paid attention to then it can be passed on to the short term memory/store (STM). According to George Millar (1956), the STM can store around 7 +- 2 chunks of information. It is encoded primarily in an acoustic format (Alan Baddeley, 1996) however it can also be encoded visually. Furthermore it remains there for around 12-30 seconds without being rehearsed. When there information is rehearsed it can remain there for as long as it’s being rehearsed (maintenance rehearsal) and will be able to stop any new information from entering the store. Transfer from the STM to the LTM is achieved through elaborative rehearsal. New information which enters the STM displaces any information which is already there; consequently the information which is not rehearsed and passed to the LTM is forgotten (decay occurs once again). When information enters the LTM it can remain there for a life time (Bahrick et al, 1975) due to the capacity of the memory being potentially unlimited. Furthermore the LTM is encoded primarily in a semantic way......

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Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model of Memory

...can also be forgotten in the short-term memory due to displacement. This is the process by which items in the STM are pushed out to make room for incoming new ones. However, if the information has remained in the STM due to maintenance rehearsal and links are made, then the information is transferred to the long-term memory through the process elaborative rehearsal. Making links is when you subconsciously compare information to something you have seen before therefore making it easier to remember. When you think of a memory then you retrieve it from your LTM and bring it to your STM. This is called retrieval. Each part of the multi-store model of memory has a different amount of capacity, duration and encoding. The capacity is the amount of information that can be held in a memory store, for example the STM has a small capacity, as information can be lost through displacement. The duration is the length of the time that information can be held in a memory store for example; the LTM has a longer duration than the STM. The encoding is the process of changing information to be remembered into a form that makes it suitable for the memory to deal with. One of the strengths of the multi-store model is that it distinguishes between short-term and long-term stores in terms of duration, encoding and capacity. There is evidence to support the distinction between the STM and LTM, which comes from case studies of people with brain damage that has given rise to memory impairment. One......

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Psy Studies

...Conclusion | Evaluation | Milner et al1957 | To see where STM is stored | HM Who suffered from frequent epilepsy, had his hippocampus removed | Could not form new LTM. Reading a book without realising he read it before | * | * | Peterson & Peterson1959 | Duration of S/LTM | Pps were shown nonsense trigram e.g. NHB and had different time intervals 3, 6, 9…18. Distraction task was to count back in 3s from a given number | The longer the interval, the harder it is to remember i.e. 3 was the easiest and 18 the hardest | When rehearsal is prevented, very little can stay in STM for over 18 seconds | * Reliable – Lab experiment * Lacks ecological validity as nonsense trigrams are artificial * Pps saw many different trigrams and may get mixed up making only the 1st one realistic | Bahrick et al1975 | Duration of LTM and to study VLTM | Asked pps to name students from year book through name recall or photo recognition | It is weaker as you get older but also depending on the way of recall e.g. name or photo etc. | The study shows evidence of VLTMs in a real life setting. Recognition is better recall; so there may be a huge store of info. It’s not always easy to access but you may require help to get to it | * High ecological validity – field experiment * Hard to control all variables – less reliable * This type of info may be rehearsed. * Cannot generalise to all types of LTM | Jacobs1887 | Capacity of STM | Pps were given a string of letters to be......

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Geogrphy

...need to avoid overloading the system. difference between LTM and STM capacity duration encoding forgetting definitions the amount of information that can be kept in the memory at any one time. the length of time memories can be held. the way information is represented in memory stores information that is lost from memory stores. STM very limited (around 7 items) not very long mainly acoustic mainly displacement LTM unlimited unlimited (up to a life time) manly semantic mainly interference displacement - a type of forgetting where the items currently in the limited capacity (STM) are pushed out before being transferred to the LTM to make room for incoming items interference - a type of forgetting where information stored in LTM us confused with similar information. 3 main types of encoding in the STM acoustic coding: the sound of a stimulus visual coding: the physical appearance of a stimulus semantic coding: the meaning of the stimulus the main way of encoding in the STM is sound. substitution errors are where we confuse an item with something similar. substitution errors have been used to test for the type of encoding used because you can tell the errors they have made by telling the substitution for example if you confuse the sound of something they are using an acoustic code. working memory: working memory is about how our STM works. the dual task method is where participants are......

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The Multi-Store Memory Model

...capacity for the LTM is unlimited, it encodes information semantically and duration lasts from an hour to a lifetime. The multi store memory has three features: It has 3 unitary stores, it is simplistic & well-structured and it moves in a linear. Evaluation There is support from neurological case studies. Since the MSM claims that the STM and LTM are in two separate stores evidence can be found in the case studies of Clive wearing. He suffered damage to his hippocampus following a viral infection which meant that information could not be sent from his STM to LTM and he could no longer retain information since his illness. Neurological case studies clearly shows that the STM and LTM are in 2 separate stores as described by the MSM. However we should be cautious when using evidence form such case studies because it is difficult to generalize one individuals experience to the wider population. Similarly laboratory experiments have provided support for this existence of 2 separate stores, STM and LTM. Lab experiment by Glanzer and Cuntiz into primary-Recency also shows the support for the separate stores. Participants were shown to recall the first few words (primacy effect) and the last few words (recency effect) from a list better than those in the middle. This is because those at the beginning are rehearsed and therefore transferred to the LTM while the words at the end are still in the STM. This laboratory experiments provides validity and show that STM an LTM are......

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Describe and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory

...the Multi Store Model in 1968. It is a model showing where information is stored and how it is transferred between the Short Term Memory and the Long Term Memory. The MSM suggests that the memory is made up of three separate stores (sensory memory, STM and LTM) all three of these stores have different capacities. The sensory store has a large capacity but it is still limited, whereas the STM can only hold about 7+/-2 items, which again differs to the LTM, which has an unlimited capacity. The MSM is said to have many advantages, but it also has many disadvantages: The theory has encourages other researchers to find evidence to help support it. In 1962, Murdock created an experiment where he has participants to learn a list of words that varied from 10 to 30 words. His results found that the words in the beginning and the end of the list were more often recalled but the ones in the middle were forgotten. He suggested that the words from the beginning were contents of the LTM because they were the most rehearsed and the words from the end were contents of the STM because they were the most recently remembered. However, the ones in the middle had been held too long to stay in the STM but weren’t rehearsed enough to transfer into the LTM. This experiment proves that the MSM is accurate as it agrees with Atkinson and Shiffrin’s statement that the memory is made up of two separate stores. Although the MSM gives us an idea of how we remember information and how long we remember......

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Multi Store Model of Memory

...one of the 5 senses depending on the type of information. If attention is paid to this information it will enter short term memory ( STM )which, according to Miller, has a capacity of 7+/- 2 bits of information. It can last up to 18 seconds, without rehearsal, according to Peterson and Peterson. Baddeley found that information in STM is encoded mainly acoustically, although Brandimonte showed that sometimes it is done visually. If maintenance rehearsal takes place it will remain in STM or be forgotten through decay or displacement. Elaborative rehearsal will then transfer information into long term memory ( LTM ) which has unlimited capacity and, according to Bahrick, can last a lifetime. Baddeley found that LTM encodes mostly semantically. Information can be retrieved from LTM to be used in STM when needed and can be forgotten through decay or displacement. ( 157 words ) A particular strength of this model is that it is supported by evidence from clinical amnesics, and as this is based on real people rather than experiments, it is more ecologically valid and therefore can be applied to everyday life. For example, H.M. underwent brain surgery to cure severe epilepsy but this resulted in the inability to transfer information from STM to LTM so that he could not form long term memories, supporting the concept that there are separate stores. ( 75 words ) Other......

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Pscolgoy Coding

...memory STM – coding is acoustic Capacity between 5 and 9 Duration between 18 and 30 seconds LTM – coding is mainly sematic Unlimited capacity Stores memory up to life time Multi store model – representation of how memory works in terms of three stores – sensory register- STM – LTM Describes how info is transferred from one store to another , how it is remembered and forgotten Multi- store model Atkinson and Shiffrin’s ( 1968 , 1971) Three stores Sensory register Stimulus from environment will pass into sensory register Main stores are iconic memory ( visual memory ) ( coded visually ) Echoic memory ( sound memory ) ( coded acoustically ) Memory lasts only briefly duration is less than half a second High capacity Key processes is paying attention Short term memory limited capacity capacity is between 5 and 9 items info is coded acoustically lasts about 30 secs unless rehearsed maintenance rehearsal – occurs when we repeat material if rehearsed long enough it will go into the LTM Long Term Memory capacity is unlimited memory can last many years When we want to recall memory it has to be transferred back into STM by retrieval. Evaluation + Baddeley research shows STM and LTM are stored are different. He found we tend to mix up words that sound similar when we our using our STMs. But we mix up words that have similar meanings when we use our LTMs. +......

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Multi Store Model Essay

...quickly lost as the sensory image fades. The next stage of Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s model was the short-term memory (STM). Information selected for further processing passes from the SIS into the STM. IT is believed that the STM holds information in the form of images, sounds or meanings. Information in STM is kept ‘alive’ by rehearsing it. Information in the STM lasts up to 30 seconds and is lost through interference or decay. The final stage of the model of memory is the long-term memory (LTM). Information which is rehearsed enough or is given elaborative meaning will transfer into the LTM. Such information is encoded in many forms, e.g. LTM contains knowledge, facts, beliefs, pictures, skills, language and musical knowledge. LTM seems to have unlimited capacity and an indefinite lifespan. Support from this model comes from research evidence. For example the work of Peterson and Peterson (1959). They gave participants a consonant trigram to remember and then a large number. To prevent rehearsal, they counted backwards in threes from a given number and then recalled the trigram. Participants were unable to recall the trigram at all after 18-30 seconds indicating that this is the life span of items in STM. This supports the model because it demonstrates the different stages of memory, STM and LTM. However, some downfalls to the experiment include not being able to apply the findings into real life situations.......

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