Substance Related Abuse

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Substance-related disorders


Substance: affects body or mind
Intoxication: temporary change
Abuse: excessive, chronic use and impairment
Dependence: abuse + physical or psychological dependence -Tolerance - Withdrawal

Substance-related conditions recognized by the DSM-IV:

* Substance dependence; diagnosis is given when substance use leads to psychological dependence or significant impairment or distress. * Substance abuse; diagnosis is given when recurrent substance use leads to significant, harmful consequences. * Substance intoxication; experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the central nervous system. * Substance withdrawal; experience of clinical significant distress in social, occupational or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use.

DSM criteria for substance abuse:

* One or more of the following occurs during a twelve month period, leading to significant impairment or distress 1. Failure to fulfill important obligations at work, home or school as a result of substance abuse. 2. Repeated use of the substance in situations which is physically hazardous to do so e.g. driving. 3. Repeated legal problems as a result to substance abuse. 4. Confirmed use of the substance despite repeated social or legal problems as a result of use.

DSM criteria for substance Dependence:

* Maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to three or more of the following: 1. Tolerance –same amount doesn’t work as well as before so now they need more. 2. Withdrawal - usually physical psychological symptoms such as hallucinations, vomiting etc.
-either take more or something else that is similar e.g. sedatives to prevent the withdrawal.
- most typical on a Sunday night or Monday morning.
3. the…...

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