Technological Leapfrogging in the Book Industry

In: Business and Management

Submitted By razvanght
Words 813
Pages 4
Amazon is not a good example of a company that accomplished technological leapfrogging in the book industry. In an industry where a standard has emerged the company that holds the rights to it and can appropriate much of its network externalities is called an incumbent. Due to the competitive advantage offered by a standard, the incumbent is always challenged by companies attempting leapfrogging- the replacement of current standards by a new, incompatible technology that is usually realized through the improvement of the technical characteristics of the product. Looking at the book industry, more precisely, at its newly developed E-book segment it became obvious for all the competitors that the dominant design of the platform on which the new products will be consumed can offer a competitive advantages for the company that establishes it. The standards wars for the platform on which the virtual books will be consumed began in 1971, with the creation of the first digital library, Project Gutenberg. Until 1998 the dominant design and only alternative was the personal computer which was replaced by the first eBook reader, the Rocket eBook. Although commitment and funding where invested in the new technology, due to limited complementary products, unstable formats and high prices it failed to become a standard. The development of e ink electronic paper by Philips was the first sign of a dominant design with Sony quickly adopting it in 2006. By 2007 the E book reader segment was still in the development stage with no standard to lead companies towards mass production and distribution. Kindle was introduced in 2007 and for its commercialization Amazon used many of the strategies that are common for companies that attempt leapfrogging. The first requirement of changing the standard, superior technology (Schilling, 2003), was met by Kindle…...

Similar Documents

Technological Enviornment

...Technological Environment With new innovations constantly on their way, new products are brought into the market that creates new market genres. In today’s weight loss industry, technological progression continues to open up new ways to exercise, stay in shape and promote great health. Whether it’s a new exercising method, a device to help workout and burn extra calories or a product that assists athletic necessities, companies today must seek out and provide their consumers with the latest technological improvements just to maintain the consumers’ loyalty. The companies that thrive for success in this competitive market often upgrade their products every chance they get along with promoting the product’s latest improvement. For example, the sports footwear company New Balance opened a sports research lab in its Lawrence, MA, facility. An article by Lou Dzierzak reveals: The modern 3,000-square-foot facility houses state-of-the-art biomechanics equipment, office space, a 120-foot running tract, 30 foot by 30 foot court and smash lab. The facility will focus on technology and product testing, innovation research, education and will host customer visits… This lab helps us join together that real-world athlete testing with the biomechanics. And with that better understanding, we can correlate mechanical and biomechanical measures to what athletes are really feeling. The investment in the new research lab facility provides New Balance with the latest technology......

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Culture: the Foundation for Technological Development

...Culture: The Foundation for Technological Development Since humans first walked the earth there has been a focus on the inventing of tools and technologies to better the quality of everyday lives, and a comparison of life through the different eras exemplifies the impact that new technologies have had on society. Delving into various “evolution timelines” of technologies provides us with important insight into how and why new technologies are developed, and the impact that these technologies have on society. Portable music devices are an example of a development that emerged from a social need, yet have had a significant cultural impact. Looking at this example and the perspectives of various theorists we aim to explore the initial impact that certain technologies have had on the development of society and ultimately how culture shapes new technologies and media forms. Different theorist’s definitions of the term “technology” need to be looked at collectively, as there is not one explanation that can wholly encapsulate a true definition. Theorists have opposing views on what technology is, therefore their individual perspectives will always shadow their definitions to some extent. For example, Lorenzo Simpson’s definition of technology suggests it is “a constellation of knowledge, processes, skills and products [that aim to] control and transform”, this comes from a culture shapes technology perspective as it highlights that technology comes from the “knowledge,......

Words: 2409 - Pages: 10

Technological Innovation

...You’re holding a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers striving to defy outmoded business models and design tomorrow’s enterprises. It’s a book for the… written by Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur co-created by designed by Alan Smith, The Movement An amazing crowd of 470 practitioners from 45 countries design by Alan Smith, The Movement www.thmvmnt.com photography by Rannie Turrigan Toronto, Canada Euro values are calculated at ¤ 0.70 to the U.S. dollar. illustrations by Paper, print and finishing: Modderman Drukwerk Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.modderman.nl © 2009 Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur Text is set in HTF Whitney This book was Self Published ISBN: 978-2-8399-0580-0 and HTF Mercury with plenty of handwriting. additional illustrations by XPLANE: The visual thinking co. Portland, OR USA www.xplane.com JAM Visual Thinking, Amsterdam, Holland www.jam-site.nl www.rannieturrigan.com Business Model Generation A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers Written by Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur Design Alan Smith, The Movement Editor and Contributing Co-Author Tim Clark Production Patrick van der Pijl Co-created by an amazing crowd of 470 practitioners from 45 countries Co-created by: Ellen Di Resta Michael Anton Dila Remko Vochteloo Victor Lombardi Jeremy Hayes Alf Rehn Jeff De Cagna Andrea Mason Jan Ondrus Simon Evenblij Chris Walters Caspar van Rijnbach benmlih Rodrigo Miranda Saul Kaplan Lars......

Words: 10972 - Pages: 44

Book Publishing Industry

...Assignment 1 The book publishing industry is rapidly changing. Gone are the days of brick and mortar book stores. People desire the fast paced changing world that technology has created. Technology has led to a total and complete transformation of the way books are sold. This new phenomena is known as the electronic book. The electronic book or eBook allows users to download their favorite book right to there handheld reader. These readers take the form of dedicated eBook devices such as the Kindle or fully integrated digital media devices such as the IPad. These downloads are relatively inexpensive compared to buying the printed book version. Also, as technology progresses and the market becomes more saturated the price of the readers will fall even lower than their already relatively affordable prices. Does this new form of media have enough to overtake its predecessor of the printed book? The introduction of this near perfect sounding new media is facing some resistance. This resistance is coming for the publishers that produce the material in the first place. They are fighting to keep the old business model of printed books alive. This struggle is similar to that of the music industry. The once striving music industry is now crumbled due to the introduction of online music downloads. Most of this is due to illegal music sharing, but it is also attributable to the pricing of the songs. Publishers fear that this will have the same effect on the book industry. There......

Words: 1391 - Pages: 6

Technological Innovation

...Discussion 2.1 • Considering each technological innovation discussed in the case, identify which has had the biggest influence on the music industry’s business model and provide a rationale. The biggest technological innovation that has had the biggest influence on the music industry’s business is the ability to download music online. That technology has it so bad to the point that people can get a whole album online without paying for it. Even if the album is purchased online, the is not as expensive as in store. Another reason why it has a big influence in the music industry’s business is that once one person buys an album online, they can easily share with many other people with those people paying for the album. • Discuss how the music industry can change their business model to remain profitable. In the age and time, the internet sells everything. So in order to remain profitable in the music industry record companies should cut down on how many CD’s are printed. That would also save some money on printing CDs. Record Labels should make digital purchases more accessible and cheaper, that way people would be more inclined to purchase. Although it is very easy to get music online for free, these record labels should stress the benefits of getting music online vs. at a store. They should make it easily accessible to purchase and send music directly to any phone. If music industry adapts to the change in electronics then I believe they will......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Technological Change

...Technological change in pakistan Pakistan is the country where development is continuously in progress, Pakistan is still an under developing country and is in a process of making their way towards the road of technology, especially from the last two decades of the twentieth century. These two decades can be regarded as the decades in which computer culture got its place Twenty years before there was no concept of software’s, mechanical devices and computerized system. Now every work is done by machines. Farmers had to do all works by their own hand that’s why they had to spend all the time on their fields. In short every department has changed promptly and all the manual work has been converted into computerized systems or done by machines. It is need of this era, everyone want to fulfill their needs in moments. Technology has revolutionized the way creative practitioners work for many generations before us. Although there are both desirable and undesirable changes Take a look at the powerful inventions that have changed society and ask what role design research played: Internet: The best example of it is World Wide Web through which we connect to the whole universe. For all of us, it has become a part of life. How many times have we found ourselves completely at a loss because our connections were down? Now on internet there are many platforms without which we can’t spend a minute like social media, blogs etc. In Pakistan there was just line connections and which......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Technological Externalities

...Explain the role of technological externalities as a cause of differences in urban productivity and growth. Taking a look at the map, one can easily identify the uneven distribution of population and the clustering of economic activities around the world. Such clustering of economic activities happens at both regional and national levels and is more formally known as agglomeration. Empirical evidence (Quigley, 1998) has shown that the increase in the productivity of a city is more than proportionate to the increase in the density of the city, which justifies why firms tend to cluster and concentrate in the same region. Recent work on economic growth views externalities, especially knowledge spillovers, as the ‘engine of growth’ (Romer 1986; Lucas 1988). This essay is going to examine how technological externalities contribute to the agglomeration of firms and thus leads to different productivity. Externalities involve interdependence of utility, production or profit functions. There are two types of externalities: pecuniary externality and technological externality. Pecuniary externality is market interdependent and it affects firms demand and profit by changes in price. Technological, in the contrast, has no involvement with market and it occurs when the well-being of a consumer or output of a firm are directly affected by the action of another agent in the economy. Krugman (1991) firmly believes that the externalities that sometimes lead to emergence of a......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

The Transformation of the Book Publishing Industry in Britain and the Us

...Impact case study (REF3b) Institution: University of Cambridge Unit of Assessment: UoA23 Title of case study: The transformation of the book publishing industry in Britain and the US 1. Summary of the impact (indicative maximum 100 words) Research undertaken by Professor John Thompson on the recent transformation of the book publishing industry has had an impact on practitioners in the publishing industry; on associated professions dependent on the publishing industry, such as writers of fiction and general interest nonfiction; on libraries and their acquisition policies; and on public debates. International reach is attested to by, among other things, invitations to address key professional bodies and writers organizations in the UK, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Brazil and Argentina, citations in government reports in Norway and participation in policy discussions at the Library of Congress in the US. 2. Underpinning research (indicative maximum 500 words) The underpinning research was carried out by Thompson in the period from 1999 to 2012 at the Department of Sociology in Cambridge. During this period Thompson held two ESRC grants. The first grant supported a three-year research project on ‘New Technologies and Global Change in the Book Publishing Industry’; this research focused on the transformation of academic and higher education publishing in Britain and the US from c1960 to c2005. It involved detailed case studies of 16 publishing firms in Britain and the US and around......

Words: 2998 - Pages: 12

The Technological Revolution

...was a very busy hustle and bustle. No one really seemed to stop and take in their surroundings, instead they seemed to be focused on getting their shopping done or meeting up with friends. I also noticed that everyone was on their cell phone even if they were walking with someone. It seemed amazing that no one crashed into anything with their heads looking down towards their phone. The technology of these devices has made us almost oblivious to the world around us. For this reason, I have chosen to discuss cellular phones as my observational technology. Cell phones have replaced many of the items that we used to use in the past. Alarm clocks are a thing of the past due to the app on almost every cell phone now. Also, calendars, phone books, gps/maps are history. We no longer look for the new cool camera or ipod because music and cameras are built right into cell phones. Cameras are now made with technology that sends pictures right to your phone so you can edit and share them on social networks. This advancement is kind of sad. Sad because people almost have to be bribed into using cameras again. While I was at the mall I also noticed something quite interesting. People were using their cell phones to pay for their purchases and to swipe coupons. I couldn’t get close enough to see exactly how people were paying, but I pull a lady aside and ask how the coupon app worked. She explained to me that when she is near a store the app alerts her about any discounts or......

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Books

...amazon.com/s/?url=search-alias=stripbooks&field-keywords=Cruise+Operations+Management Cruise Operations Management provides a comprehensive and contextualised overview of hospitality services for the cruise industry. As well as providing a background to the cruise industry, it also looks deeper into the management issues providing a practical guide for both students and professionals alike. A user-friendly and practical guide it discusses issues such as:· The history and image of cruising· How to design a cruise and itinerary planning· Roles and responsibilities on a cruise ship· Customer service systems and passenger profiles· Managing food and drink operations onboard· Health, safety and security Cruise Operations Management presents a range of contextualised facts illustrated by a number of case studies that encourage the reader to examine the often complex circumstances that surround problems or events associated to cruise operations. The case studies are contemporary and are constructed from first hand research with a number of international cruise companies providing a real world insight into this industry. Each case study is followed by questions that are intended to illuminate issues and stimulate discussion. The structure of the book is designed so the reader can either build knowledge cumulatively for an in-depth knowledge of managerial practices and procedures onboard a cruise ship, or they can ‘dip in' and make use of......

Words: 4650 - Pages: 19

Technological Innovations

...Project 2 – Technological Innovations Nathan Brenner Westwood College 2014/05/09 SOCS-299 Abstract The open source software Linux, was introduced in 1991, by Linus Torvalds. He developed the UNIX based operating system because, the education oriented operating system he was working with was not meeting his needs. Linux has grown to be an innovative powerhouse, because Linux is so versatile it can be used in hundreds of applications and shows no signs of age or being outmoded. Technological Innovations The financial burden put on college students is staggering. However, there is one corner that can be cut when deciding what kind of operating system for your computer to purchase. Most people are mundane and choose whatever is pre-installed on the computer they are purchasing, but did you know there is an alternative? When you think of a computer operating system, what is the first thing that comes to mind? Windows? Apple? Did you know there was a third alternative? I am talking about the open source software known as Linux. What is Linux? The actual definition is “a freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms” (webopedia, 2014). The technological advantage that the open source software Linux has given to the world is immense. This open source software has come a long way since its inception in the early 1990’s, and has grown to be the most versatile open source operating system to date. Along with its......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Amb207 Book Industry

...The Book Publishing Industry Assessment 1: Industry Opportunity Analysis Name: Joyce Yi Student no: n9102434 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The publishing industry is incredibly resilient and is undergoing some incredible changes. This report will analyse the industry with respect to the 4C’s of Entertainment Marketing and identify the key opportunities that are currently evident within the publishing industry and thus devise two potential ideas for future development and implementations. Research has found that indie publishers and authors are taking up a huge portion of the market and therefore more beneficial for these professionals to create digital content and distribute it independently. As publishers are not educated in IT and data Analytics, these skill sets will need to be outsourced or taught in order for self-publishers to maximise their revenue and consumer retention. Mobile applications are also proving to be the new way to read digital content by enhancing the consumer’s experience, thus adding value to the product. The growth of virtual spaces that allow people to network and collaborate on creative projects are also increasing and globalisation has shaken the industry and provide huge opportunities to bring distribution closer to the consumer and pursue a much larger audience. Therefore, this analysis indicates there could be future development for a platform at which authors, publishers, and developers can come together to collaborate and create......

Words: 3523 - Pages: 15

Technological Transformations

...TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS Introduction Technological transformations occur daily, affecting many groups of people. Two groups of people that were most affected before 1900 were farmers and physicians. The advancement in technology for both farmers and physicians has made impact for all. The advancements for farmers helped them to cover more land, producing more goods and at the same time lowering the cost to take care of a farm. Physicians were able to expand their knowledge and give better care to those in need. The machines and tools were able to give them a better idea of what was wrong with a patient. There were many inventions that helped in making everyday tasks that they were performing daily much easier thus opening the door for more advancement in farming and in the medical field. Farming There were many inventions that impacted the work load of farming, one of which was the steel plow. The steel plow was invented by a blacksmith named John Deere. Farmers were not able to use the old style plow which was made of cast iron and was used more commonly in the eastern states. John Deere decided to make steel plows because the cast iron plows would easily break due to the soil being rich and thick in the Great Plains. Farmers were now spending more time harvesting land instead of fixing the cast iron plows. The steel plow had a wooden handle and was attached to a horse. The plow would dig the soil and turn it over in preparation for......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7

How Industrial Forces Mainly Technological Changes Have Killed the Cinema Industry

...2011-03-17 ASSIGNMENT TWO; ‘HOW INDUSTRIAL FORCES MAINLY TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES HAVE KILLED THE CINEMA INDUSTRY.’ PREPARED BY ANNE. N Introduction The cinema industry in is one of the biggest recipients of the negative impact of industrial changes. Currently the industry is literally falling. Opinions may differ on the exact cause of downfall of the industry. Cinema owners, contractors and spectators were unanimous in their view that, changing buyer life styles, cable network, complaints of obscenity, costly tickets, mobile, internet, computers, DVDs and dish antenna have together contributed to the decreased number of cine-goers in recent years Most cinema halls’ property has been bought or is hired by Pentecostal churches in the country which is now redeveloping the buildings as a worship centers’, others have been converted to shopping exhibitions for clothes and mobile phones. a) Technological changes The range of products that are available for consumers to buy is constantly changing. Consumers of only 40 years ago could not even dream of personal computers the internet, mobile phones, quality sound home theatres and even air conditioned cars just to mention but a few. By researching into and developing new products, some businessses have created huge new and profitable markets. Some examples that have negatively affected the cinema industries are; 1. The digital revolution has flooded the......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

A Study of the Technological Environment of Mobile Services Industry of India

...than the market, the CDMA family grows as the same rate as market and the other technologies are gradually phasing out. Current Events INTRODUCTION OF 3G I-PHONE Recently Airtel and Vodafone, the two leading telecom companies of India have announced the introduction of 3G iPhone in India later this year. The launch date and price have not been announced yet. 3G or Third Generation is a generic term used for the highly technical next generation mobile communication system. It is estimated that by 2010, the two dominant 3G technologies, CDMA2000 and Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), will account for 1.2 billion subscribers, representing 41 per cent of the global subscriber base Its introduction would be a transition point for Indian mobile industry. It will bring a complete entertainment solution as follows: 1. One can watch any television show which he has missed out at any time during his convenience. 2. Watch video highlights of any occasion, party say a birthday party, marriage, and can store our precious moments. 3. It can set our traveling schedule, can keep track of traffic conditions on our office path, and can also suggest the most feasible traveling option bus, train or a car. 4. It can also provide interactive medical aid services connecting to doctors and medical representatives sitting kilometers away, just the way we use customer care services. 5. It will be our companion during our spare moments providing a full media solution. 6. iPhone 3G combines all......

Words: 5255 - Pages: 22

Susan Alexander Kane | Adobe Photoshop Lightroom CC 3.4 modded apk | 4 11 2014-02-23The Walking Dead - Claimed