The Impact of Electronic Word of Mouth on Purchase Intention in Egypt.

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sarhanco
Words 434
Pages 2
Before consumers decide on a specific item to purchase, they learn about others’ past experiences through word-of-mouth (WOM). Today, the Internet has replaced traditional face-to-face WOM and has created a new electronic WOM platform (eWOM). Consumers now have a breadth of information at their fingertips and can access thousands of user reviews online. Word of mouth is considered one of the most market information sources that influence consumers. It is so influential because consumers usually trust other consumers’ information more than the information generated by advertisers and marketers because WOM is typically generated and communicated behind marketers’ selling purposes and is thus considered to be more trustworthy and credible (Blackshaw 2006, Sen and Lerman, 2007).
The developing of the Internet has increased consumers' alternatives for receiving unbiased product information from other consumers and provides the opportunity for consumers to articulate their opinions by engaging in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Examples of the types of online WOM platforms: product review websites, retailers’ websites, brands websites, personal blogs, message boards and social networking sites (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh and Gremler, 2004).
Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) has several characteristics (e.g. directed to multiple individuals, available to other consumers for an indefinite period of time, and anonymous) that differentiate them from the traditional word-of-mouth (WOM). These characteristics enable eWOM to exist between people who have no or weak relationship or even can be anonymous, this anonymity helps people to freely share their opinions and reviews without revealing their identities (Goldsmith and Horowitz, 2006), also the unique characteristics of eWOM encourages consumers to share their opinions freely with other consumers, thus increasing the…...

Similar Documents

The Effect of Branding on Consumer Purchase Intention

...T.C. MARMARA ÜN VERS TES SOSYAL B L MLER ENST TÜSÜ ŞLETME ANAB L M DALI ÜRET M YÖNET M VE PAZARLAMA ( NG) B L M DALI THE EFFECT OF BRANDING ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION: A STUDY IN TURKISH APPAREL INDUSTRY Yüksek Lisans Tezi ŞULE DEM R stanbul, 2008 MARMARA ÜN VERS TES SOSYAL B L MLER ENST TÜSÜ ŞLETME ( NG) ANAB L M DALI ÜRET M YÖNET M VE PAZARLAMA ( NG) B L M DALI THE EFFECT OF BRANDING ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION: A STUDY IN TURKISH APPAREL INDUSTRY Yüksek Lisans Tezi ŞULE DEM R Danışman: YRD. DOÇ.DR. A. MÜGE YALÇIN stanbul, 2008 GENEL B LG LER sim ve Soyadı Anabilim Dalı Programı Tez Danışmanı Tez Türü ve Tarihi : Şule DEM R : şletme : Üretim Yönetimi ve Pazarlama ( ng.) : Yrd. Doç.Dr. A. Müge YALÇIN : Yüksek Lisans - Temmuz 2008 Anahtar Kelimeler : Marka Çağrışımları, Marka Öğeleri, Marka Değeri, Giyim Sektörü, Tekstil Sektörü, Markaya Karşı Tutum, Satın Alma Niyeti ÖZET MARKANIN TÜKET C SATIN ALMA N YET NE ETK S : TÜRKIYE G Y M SEKTÖRÜ ÜZER NDE B R ARAŞTIRMA Bu çalışma, Türkiye hazır giyim sektöründeki marka çağrışımları ve marka öğeleri ile satın alma niyeti arasındaki ilişkileri incelemektedir. Bu amaçla, marka çağrışımları ve marka öğelerinin 1980 – 1990 yılları arasında doğan gençlerin satın alma niyeti ile ilişkileri ortaya konulmuştur. Çalışmanın çerçevesini belirlemeden önce Türkiye hazır giyim sektörünün durumu ve 1980 – 1990 arasında doğan gençlerin eğilimlerini saptayabilmek amacıyla literature araştırması......

Words: 46290 - Pages: 186

E-Wom Has Effect on Purchase Intention

...“Electronic Word-Of-Mouth Influence Purchase Intension of customers: Case of Social Network” Submitted By Ms. Riddhi Shah ID NO. 542-9245 Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the subject Individual Research Project Master of Business Administration Assumption University Semester 2/2012 Submitted To: Dr. Vorapot Ruckthum Table of Contents ABSTRACT 4 CHAPTER 1 5 GENERALITIES OF STUDY 5 1.1 INTRODUCTION 5 1.2 TOPIC OF INTEREST 6 1.3 RATIONALE OF STUDY 7 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 7 1.5 PURPOSE OF STUDY 8 1.6 METHODOLOGY 8 1.7 RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA ANALYSIS 8 1.8 LIMITATION 9 1.9 SCOPE OF RESEARCH 9 CHAPTER 2 10 LITERATURE REVIEW 10 2.1 INTRODUCTION 10 2.2 THEORIES 10 2.2.1 Effects of Electronic Word-of-Mouth 10 2.2.2 Observation Learning 11 2.2.3 Influence of Trust on Purchase Intention 13 2.2.4 Source of Information 14 CHAPTER 3 15 THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 15 3.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 15 3.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 21 3.2.1 Explanation of Conceptual Framework 22 3.3 HYPOTHESES 24 CHAPTER 4 26 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26 4.1 RESEARCH METHODS 26 4.2 POPULATION OF STUDY 26 4.3 SAMPLING UNIT 27 4.4 SAMPLE SIZE 27 4.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 27 CHAPTER 5 28 DATA ANALYSIS 28 5.1 INTRODUCTION 28 5.2 INTERPRETATION OF DATA 28 5.2.1 Descriptive Analysis 28 5.2.2 Hypothesis......

Words: 9242 - Pages: 37

Forms of Employee Negetive Word of Mouth

...FORMS OF EMPLOYEE NEGATIVE WORD OF MOUTH: A STUDY OF FRONT-LINE WORKERS The purpose of this article is to explain and provide the understandings within the forms of negative word of mouth (WOM) by the front line workers toward the employees and customers in any organizations. The word of mouth in this article is about the negative verbal communication or spoken meanings of a person towards the customer and other employees that work in the same organization or department. According to this article there has been a research interest into (WOM) from several organizational disciplines and there is a notable lack of studies on employee negative WOM behaviours. Besides that the author of the article has found some studies that contribute and also relate on employee behaviours that can be viewed as linked to word of mouth such as sabotage (Ackroyd and Thompson, 1999; Harris and Ogbonna, 2002;Wang et al.,2011), workplace incivility (Van Jaarsveld et al., 2010) and retaliation (Skarlicki et al., 1999). Although they are some research aids have tended to avoid the forms of WOM by employees, especially front-line, customer contact employees who are the direct interface between organizations and their customers. This article also mention that the authors have stated that the findings of the word of mouth phenomenon in the organization will provide the important information to the literature on the changing aspects of negative employee behaviour in the workplace, mostly in relation to......

Words: 1854 - Pages: 8

Purchase Intention and Word of Mouth

...2013), PP 101-109 Brand Love: Mediating Role in Purchase Intentions and Word-ofMouth Muhammad Yasin1, Amjad Shamim2 2 (Department of Business and Economics, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan) (Lecturer, Department of Business and Economics, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan) 1 Abstract: The objective of this research is two fold. First is to determine the impact of brand experience, brand trust and affective commitment on purchase intentions. Second is to ascertain the mediating role of brand love in the relationships of purchase intentions and word-of-mouth. The data was obtained from 265 cell phone customers from Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Simple random sampling technique was used for the collection of data and the data was analyzed in SPSS 15.0 where correlation and regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that brand experience, brand trust and affective commitment have significant positive impacts on purchase intentions. In this relationship, the intensity of the impact of affective commitment is quite high as compared to other variables. Other results revealed that purchase intentions significantly predict brand love and word-of-mouth, and brand love also significantly predicts word-of-mouth. And finally, brand love has partial mediation affect in the relationship of purchase intentions and word-of-mouth. Keywords - affective commitment, brand experience, brand......

Words: 7930 - Pages: 32

The Halal Brand Personality and Its Effect on Purchase Intention

...5, NO 3 The Halal brand personality and its effect on purchase intention Mahdi Borzooei and Maryam Asgari Business Management Faculty, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia Abstract Halal is not just a purely religious issue; it is also in the realm of business and trade. The purpose of this study is to propose a model to determine the Halal brand personality and then examine its effect on brand trust and purchase intention. In particular, religious commitment with intra-personal and inter-personal dimensions is presented as a moderator variable. A literature review was conducted to select an appropriate theoretical model based on the recognized variables. In addition, the paper provides insight into each variable of the proposed model. The practical implication of this study extends to the new window for marketers and businesses in different countries involved in the Halal business. Establishing a strong Halal brand assists corporations to achieve worldwide acknowledgement, credibility, and be a major player in this lucrative market. Shaping Halal in the lens of branding in the business environment enhances the image of Halal and also leads to more recognition among nonMuslims consumers. Finally, this is a pioneer study to propose implementing brand personality and brand trust on Halal. Keywords Halal, Brand personality, Brand trust, Purchase intention, Religious commitment 1. Introduction The word Halal has many connotations and it is difficult if not......

Words: 4497 - Pages: 18

Word-of-Mouth Communication in the Service Marketplace

...Word-of-mouth communication in the service marketplace The Authors W. Glynn Mangold, Professor of Marketing, Department of Management & Marketing, College of Business & Public Administration, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, USA Fred Miller, Professor of Marketing, Department of Management & Marketing, College of Business & Public Administration, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, USA Gary R. Brockway, Chairman and Professor of Marketing, Department of Management & Marketing, College of Business & Public Administration, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, USA Abstract Word-of-mouth communication (WOM) is a dominant force in the marketplace for services. However, the current body of research provides little insight into the nature of WOM in the service marketplace. Reports the results of a content-analytic study that provides insight into WOM’s content and the catalysts by which it is stimulated. The goal was to capture a series of “grounded events” from which broader patterns could be discerned. These grounded events were actual incidents of WOM as described by the recipients of a communication. Three content categories and ten catalyst categories are identified. Implications for managers are addressed. Article Type: Research paper Keyword(s): Communications; Consumer behaviour; Customer satisfaction; Interpersonal communications; Services marketing. Journal: JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING Volume: 13 Number: 1 Year: 1999 ...

Words: 8566 - Pages: 35

Word of Mouth

...Ch11-H8566.qxd 8/8/07 2:04 PM Page 222 CHAPTER 11 Market segmentation YORAM (JERRY) WIND and DAVID R. BELL All markets are heterogeneous. This is evident from observation and from the proliferation of popular books describing the heterogeneity of local and global markets. Consider, for example, The Nine Nations of North America (Garreau, 1982), Latitudes and Attitudes: An Atlas of American Tastes, Trends, Politics and Passions (Weiss, 1994) and Mastering Global Markets: Strategies for Today’s Trade Globalist (Czinkota et al., 2003). When reflecting on the nature of markets, consumer behaviour and competitive activities, it is obvious that no product or service appeals to all consumers and even those who purchase the same product may do so for diverse reasons. The Coca Cola Company, for example, varies levels of sweetness, effervescence and package size according to local tastes and conditions. Effective marketing and business strategy therefore requires a segmentation of the market into homogeneous segments, an understanding of the needs and wants of these segments, the design of products and services that meet those needs and development of marketing strategies, to effectively reach the target segments. Thus focusing on segments is at the core of organizations’ efforts to become customer driven; it is also the key to effective resource allocation and deployment. The level of segment aggregation is an increasingly important issue. In today’s global economy,...

Words: 14313 - Pages: 58

Electonic Word of Mouth in Hospiatlity & Tourism Sector

...ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH IN HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT Stephen W. Litvin College of Charleston Ronald E. Goldsmith Florida State University Bing Pan College of Charleston Stephen W. Litvin is Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management in the School of Business and Economics, at the College of Charleston (South Carolina); Ronald E. Goldsmith is the Richard M. Baker Professor of Marketing at Florida State University; and Bing Pan is Assistant Professor and the Director of the Office of Tourism Analysis at the College of Charleston. Address correspondence to: Steve Litvin, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424. Phone 843-953-7317; Email Submitted June, 20, 2005 to Tourism Management Revised and resubmitted May 09, 2006 Second revision October 1, 2006 ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH IN HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT Abstract Interpersonal influence and word-of-mouth (WOM) are ranked the most important information source when a consumer is making a purchase decision. This influence may be especially important in the hospitality and tourism industry, whose intangible products are difficult to evaluate prior to their consumption. When WOM becomes digital, the largescale, anonymous, ephemeral nature of the Internet induces new ways of capturing, analyzing, interpreting, and managing online WOM. This paper describes online......

Words: 8988 - Pages: 36

Analysis of Effects of Source Credibility, Electronic Word-of-Mouth, Website Quality, and Perceived Quality Towards Buying Decision

...Analysis of Effects of Source Credibility, Electronic Word-Of-Mouth, Website Quality, and Perceived Quality towards Buying Decision Yonatan Suganda, Wibawa Prasetya (Pembimbing) ABSTRAK Penelitian menjelaskan pengaruh electronic word-of-mouth, source credibility, website quality dan perceived quality terhadap buying decision. Metode penelitian yang telah dilakukan adalah metode kuantitatif. Analisis dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan data dari kuesioner dengan responden adalah konsumen Bhinneka.Com. Penelitian ini bersifat deskritif dan verikatif, sedangkan analisis berdasarkan pengolahan data menggunakan metode SEMdisertai implikasi teoritis dan implikasi manajerial. Perkembangan internet di Indonesia telah mendorong berkembangnya e-commerce di Indonesia. Menurut data yang dirilis biro riset Frost & Sullivan, bersama China, Indonesia menjadi negara dengan pertumbuhan pasar e-commerce terbesar di dunia dengan rata-rata pertumbuhan 17 persen tiap tahun. Melalui penelitian ini disimpulkan, bahwa variable electronic word-of-mouth dan variable perceived quality tidak berpengaruh terhadap buying decision. Variabel website quality dan variable source credibility mengukur hal yang sama sehingga membentuk variable baru yaitu variable website credibility yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap buying decision. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa variable perceived quality memiliki pengaruh negative terhadap buying decision Kata kunci: SEM, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, buying......

Words: 4312 - Pages: 18

Impact of Trade on Egypt

...FINAL REPORT Impact of Trade and Economic Policy Reforms on Key Sectors of the Egyptian Economy PREPARED BY ATR Project SUBMITTED TO USAID/Cairo Ministry of Foreign Trade SUBMITTED BY Nathan Associates UNDER CONTRACT NO. PCE-I-00-98-00016-00 Task Order 827 2 April 2004 Contents Executive Summary Egypt’s Economy in Relation to the Global Marketplace Trade Policy and the International Trade Regime Impact of Trade Regime Changes on Subsectors Conclusions Next Steps 1. Introduction 2. Egypt’s Economy and Its Place in the Global Arena Egyptian Economy Today Structure of the Economy Labor force, Employment and Unemployment Macroeconomy and Balance of Payments Trade Patterns Macroeconomic and Trade Policy Reform Current Challenges Distinguishing Characteristics of Egypt’s Economy Water Resources and Growing Population Pressure Oil and Natural Gas Geographical Location Egyptian Culture Higher Education Socialism and Its Aftermath Egypt’s Comparative Advantage in the Global Economy Changing Global Economy Egypt’s Economy in Relation to Three Waves of Globalization Revealed Competitive Advantage Analysis v vi viii xi xiv xvi 1 5 5 5 7 8 10 12 13 14 14 16 16 16 17 18 19 19 22 25 II 3. Trade Policy and the International Trade Regime Current Trade Regime in Egypt Tariff Structure Non-tariff Barriers to Trade Multilateral, Regional, and Bilateral Agreements Multilateral Agreements Regional Agreements Bilateral Agreements Trade Regimes of Major......

Words: 75620 - Pages: 303

The Influence of Service Recovery Strategies on Word of Mouth

...IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 3, No 2, May 2012 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 99 The Influence of Service Recovery Strategies on Word Of Mouth: Views of Mobile Phone Users Samsudin Wahab and Nor Sabrina Norizan Center of Applied Management Studies Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor Abstract This study explores the relationship between perceived customer dimensions of justice and word of mouth among the selected university students in mobile phone usage. The respondent used for this study was 500 business students of Malaysian university students located in Kelang Valley. Out of 327 questionnaires distributed, there were 181 complainants. Dimensions of justice act as an independent variable consisted of procedural, interactional and distributional justice. In order to determine the relationship between dimensions of justice and customer satisfaction the researcher used multiple regressions. The result showed that distributional justice and interactional justice as a significant unique contribution to the prediction of customer word of mouth. Further research should be carried out to identify the other factors of service recovery strategies that will help in increasing the customer satisfaction towards the organization. As this research was conducted in the telecommunication sector, it would be appropriate if further research can investigate if customers from the other...

Words: 7405 - Pages: 30

Word of Mouth Marketing

...Twitter and Brands with Word of Mouth Marketing Word of mouth marketing is rapidly becoming part of marketing’s plan when it comes to brand building. Twitter was first introduced in April 2006 as a social platform that provided one’s status updates; four years later Twitter’s strategic direction integrated its business users with Twitter for business (Promoted Tweets, Twitter Ads) in April 2010. I was at first skeptical about Twitter because of the limited number of characters per message and I didn’t see the advantages in microblogging at first. These days, when I am on Twitter my game plan is simply I follow topics I want to know about and receive updates on, then check back for messages (or tweets). Speaking for myself, I eventually discovered how to enjoy tweets on events and topics that interested me. Nevertheless, Twitter presently has over 75 million accounts, so I would tend to agree that there’s a lot of personal marketing one can accomplish with it if it’s done right. This seems to be the case with Twitter’s other market: companies, advertisers, and marketers who seem to be able to make marketing sense with it. Social networks like Twitter have forced marketers to spend more time studying social trends and behaviors to improve or develop their targeting strategies. It’s been shown that television and social media are correlated. Research has concluded that consumers love using social media while they watch TV (see illustration[2]). Twitter is able......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Electronic Mail and the Written Word commensurate with the need to contact with other people. (181) As Gopnik points out, written language is just another way two people can communicate without physically seeing each other. E-mail provides the same service, while increasing the speed and convenience of the written word. Dennis Baron stated, “Writing lacks such tonal cues of the human voice as pitch and stress, not to mention the physical cues that accompany face to face communication” (41). Although this is true, e-mail has given the writer a unique way to express himself without the need for handwriting or verbal assistance. Symbols such as the happy and sad faces give the reader a sense of what the writer is feeling. Also, abbreviations such as lol (laugh out loud) tell something about the writer’s mood at that present time. Usage of font can express a loud tone or subtle tone; bold and underline can be used to demonstrate intimidation and importance. In the essay “The Conversion”, Wendy Lesser tells of her struggle to accept e-mail as an adequate form of writing. She talks of the first time she realized her friend’s personal style still existed in his electronic text: To my enormous pleasure, …the electronic mode did not wash out his characteristic tones. On the contrary, he sounded in his virtual incarnation exactly as he did in real life: wry, observant, dryly affectionate, subtle sharp. Personal style, it turned out, did not get blotted out by the machine. (230) Baron also states......

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Impact of Brand Identity of Horlicks in Consumers' Purchase Intention

...Course Title: Thesis Paper A Research Paper on “How brand elements influence the consumers’ purchase intention of a brand: A study on Horlicks and GlaxoSmithKline” Prof. Dr. Md. Masudur Rahman Professor Department of Marketing University of Dhaka Prof. Dr. Md. Masudur Rahman Professor Department of Marketing University of Dhaka Prepared For: Anisur Rahman ChowdhuryRoll-117, Section A18th batchDepartment of MarketingUniversity of Dhaka | Prepared By: Submission Date: 31 March, 2016 Letter of Transmittal March 30, 2016 Prof. Dr. Masudur Rahman Professor Department of Marketing University of Dhaka Subject: A Research Paper on “How brand elements influence the consumers’ purchase intention of a brand: A study on Horlicks and GlaxoSmithKline” Dear Sir, This is an immense pleasure to submit my thesis paper on A Research Paper on “How brand elements influence the consumers’ purchase intention of a brand: A study on Horlicks and GlaxoSmithKline” as a partial fulfillment of BBA program. I hope this paper is informative and comprehensive as per your instruction. Here, I have worked with the consumer of “Horlicks” and tried to analyze their feedback to find out the impact of brand elements of “Horlicks & GlaxoSmithKline” on their purchase intention of Horlicks. Now, I am very grateful to you for your valuable supervision, precious time, effort and support......

Words: 12925 - Pages: 52

Business Research: Word of Mouth

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This research is the study of the factors that affect people to provide word-of-mouth on Oishi Grand. There are 4 factors that we think it will affect people to provide word-of-mouth on Oishi Grand, these 4 factors are 1.Food quality 2.Service quality 3. Perceived price and 4. Brand image. Our main research question is Does food quality, service quality, perceived price, and brand image affect people to provide word-of-mouth on Oishi Grand? Moreover, we try to find the factor that has the biggest impact. We conduct the survey by using questionnaire as the tool to collect information. We collect information from 210 Assumption University’s students. Then we use SAS program to analyst the data. We try to separate people into many groups to see the relationship easier. We think that people who are Japanese lover, Novelty seeker, have an experience on Oishi Grand and Buffet lover will perceived different on Oishi Grand’s food quality, service quality, brand image and perceived price. According to our hypothesis testing, Food quality, service quality and perceived price affect people to provide word-of-mouth on Oishi Grand, Perceived price generate the biggest impact. Moreover, people perceived food quality, service quality, perceived price and brand image of Oishi Grand as high. People who are buffet lover and non-buffet lover have no different frequency to go to Oishi Grand. Most of people will go to Oishi Grand during weekend afternoon (04.00pm. to 10.00 pm...

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

SmallRig BMPCC 4K Cage for Blackmagic Design Pocket Cinema Camera 4K 2203 | Стратегии (Старые Игры) | Elisha Cook Jr.