The Space Race

In: Historical Events

Submitted By maddiet
Words 485
Pages 2
The space race between the U.S.S.R and the United States was very important during the Cold War. The space race began in 1952 when the International Council of Scientific Unions decided to name July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958 as the International Geophysical Year, also known as IGY, because the scientists knew that the cycles of solar activity would be at a high point then. In October of 1954 the council called for artificial satellites to be launched during IGY to map out the Earth’s surface. In July 1955 the White House announced plans to launch an Earth orbiting satellite for the IGY and made proposals to government research agencies to undertake development of new satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory’s Vanguard proposal was chosen to represent the United States in September 1955.
On October 4, 1957 the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the world’s first artificial satellite. Sputnik was about the size of a basketball, weighed about one hundred and eighty pounds, and took ninety eight minutes to launch into Earth’s elliptical path.
The launch of Sputnik changed the space race dramatically. The Sputnik, a big technological achievement, caught the United States off guard and captured the attention of the whole world. Sputnik’s size was bigger than Vanguard’s proposal of 3.5 pounds and was very impressive. On November 3, 1957 the Soviets launched another satellite named Sputnik 2 II, which was much heavier and even included a dog named Laika.
Immediately after the launch of Sputnik I, the United State’s defense department responded by approving funding for another satellite project, the Explorer, headed by Werner von Braun. On July 31, 1958 the United States successfully launched the Explorer I satellite, which discovered the magnetic radiation belts around the Earth. The Sputnik launch also led to the creation of National Aeronautics and…...

Similar Documents


...Space is the final frontier 1. space: -outer space = region beyond earth 2. final: -last, ultimate, no more frontier beyond this 3. frontier: -an outer limit, especially one in which the opportunities for research and development have not been exploited 4. History of space exploration: simple overview of western countries – includes China’s endeavors – 5. Can space be considered an unexplored region if… a. man has been observing the sky since before recorded history? b. man has been thinking of exploring it since the 17th century?啟動螢幕閱讀器 共用設定 • yuanshangkwong c. the first man-made vehicle flew 100 km outside earth in 1942? d. the first human space flight in 1961? e. the Voyager I and II space craft were launched? f. man put a space station into orbit? g. even ordinary people like singer Sarah Brightman can pay to fly into space? h. we can be buried in space? 6. Consider: -What do we know about space? -What don’t we know about it? -Is it our next or our final frontier? -Is Antarctica the final frontier? Are the oceans our final frontier? Is the earth’s core our final frontier? Is time our final frontier? Is death our final frontier? I don’t think the opposition needs to say what is the final frontier, only that space isn’t. Negative side arguments 1st speaker 1) Definition on final, frontier, tangible or intangible......

Words: 1482 - Pages: 6

Space Race ventures as listed below: ▪ Private parties looking for opportunities to put up communication satellites ▪ Delivering supplies to the International Space Station ▪ Placing astronomical science instruments into space Larry’s job the first few years at EDS presented him with several challenges. First, there was a rocket explosion after liftoff, which EDS had responsibility in this venture. The payload was a part of a communication satellite from EDS, and the reputation of EDS has suffered from this, as well as the customer confidence in the company. Upon impact of the explosion, it caused some damage to the environment, nature, and surrounding areas in the community by the release of a small amount of radioactive dust in the air that settled. It was at this time Larry became the key scientist of the investigating team to determine the cause of the explosion, which was due to a faulty manufacturing of a fuel line gasket by Space Engineers LTD. Larry did well on the investigation and received a promotion to a team leader role. He continued to improve in efficiency, cost, and effectiveness of using rockets to deliver private payloads into space. Larry’s work became even more noticeable by the senior staff in the company and he acquired a nickname of “Werner Von Braun,” of the private space industry. Larry now was in line to receive a higher position in the company, including becoming future company President. Sandra Armstrong, Larry’s......

Words: 2028 - Pages: 9


...HOW America feel about Space Exploration Research Methods SS3150 May 08, 2013 How America feel about Space Exploration The space exploration has been a huge program for research and human knowledge. It has brought so many concerns, questions and suggestions which has engaged and, affected American’s in their everyday lives. Some of the research questions that I came up with which are appropriate for qualitative research are for example first, how does the earth interact with the neighboring planets? Second, how does space exploration help in securing our planet? And the third question is how does the exploration improve our lives economically? The explanation as to why these three questions are appropriate for qualitative research is that for one, the question of how does the earth interact with the neighboring planets, is a question which does not require any thought of numbers when answering because, one can simply answer that the earth interacts with the neighboring planets by how they all get the light from the sun. The target population on this question can be young or old and questionnaires would be the best sample to the participants for this research. The second question on how does space exploration help in securing our planet is also appropriate for qualitative research and, it shows or it can bring suggestions for example, that the technology used in space exploration is very highly advanced and that people feel safe because it sends signals of anything......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

The Space Race

...HIST101-1304B-10 Modern American History 1950 to the 21st Century The Space Race The Space Race began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched a satellite into space named Sputnik. This satellite began its journey attached to a Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Sputnik was the first piece of man made equipment ever sent into orbit around the Earth. The launch of Sputnik showed the United States that they were behind the power curve when it came to exploring space. The other thing that the Sputnik launched showed the United States was the power and range of the Soviet’s R-7 ICBM. It seemed that the Soviet Union was capable of delivering nuclear warheads to U.S. soil. This encouraged the U.S. military to take a particularly hard look into the weapon advancements that the Soviets were making. By 1958 the United States launched its own satellite into space, known as Explorer I. It was designed by the U.S. Army and over watched by a rocket scientist, Wernher von Braun. In 1958 President Eisenhower created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or more commonly known as NASA. In addition to signing the public order which created NASA, President Eisenhower also signed two more orders that would ensure the United States would not fall behind in gathering intelligence via space again. The first was used by the U.S. Air Force, which focused on using space for military operations. The second named Corona was a collaboration with the CIA,......

Words: 684 - Pages: 3

Space Race

...Alen Sonny Mr. Lewis APUSH Period 5 13 April, 2014 The War between Communism and Democracy for Dominance of Space The Space Race was a war of firsts between the United States of America and the Union Soviet Socialist Republics. But it was also the culmination of the dreams of man for many millennia and the team who worked on the space programs was able to discover what so many of the people that came before and after them could only dream of. It was an endeavor that all of humanity was invested in at the time. It was a testament to the power of the human spirit and it showed how nothing was impossible if we persevered and strived to be better. The space race did not start as one would expect with the respective American and Soviet space agencies. But rather it began with the German V2 missile launches towards the end of World War 2. The V2 missile was designed by Wernher Von Braun a German scientist who had dreamed of traveling to the moon for many years; however this dream had to be secret as it was considered to be treasonous and not helpful to the German cause. Von Braun and many other amateur rocketeers were drafted into the German war machine in order to help build a super weapon and their base was Peenemünde. When the war was nearing its end the Third Reich unleashed its secret weapon, the V2 missile. It could hit anywhere within its target range and there would be no warning. When it hit, it caused scenes of mass destruction. The V2 missiles were to be Hitler’s...

Words: 5318 - Pages: 22

The Space Race

...The Space Race The Cold War * Used science and technology to compete against each other October 4, 1957 The Chief Designer * Sergei Korolev * Sputnik I * First man made satellite * Launched a top an R-7A rocket * The west is stunned * Surprised * However less than a month later… * Soviet launch Sputnik 2 * Weighs 1000 pounds * Carries live animals * West panics * Science becomes mandatory America begins its own space program * But in a democracy, this has to be done largely in the open * December 6,1957 * First attempt to launch a satellite * U.S Navy’s Vanguard rocket carrying the Explorer 1 satellite * Only 3 pounds The Irony * The US could have put satellite into orbit in 1956 * Using the well test Jupiter C rocket of Wernher von Braun * But the US government * Announced they would launch a satellite in 1958 * Promised it to the Navy and their untested Vanguard rocket * Didn’t want to make Soviets feel threatened by earlier launching * Although much smaller than the Sputniks, Explorer 1 carries scientific instruments and begins scientific exploration of space Aurorae * Magnetic field deflects solar winds * As they stream downwards they collide with molecules in the atmosphere * Excite electrons causing them to glow * Fluorescence *......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Space Race

...The Space Race was a competition between the Soviet Union and the United States for supremacy in space exploration from 1957-1975 . The Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on being firsts in space exploration to show a sign of superiority. The Space Race involved launching satellites, suborbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and manned flights to the Moon. It first began with the Soviet Union’s launch of the Sputnik 1 satellite on October 4. 1957, and ended with the Apollo-Soyuz human spaceflight mission in July 1975. The Apollo-Soyuz project symbolized an easing in the relationship between the Soviet Union and the US. The Space Race was originally a missile-based arms race that occurred just after the end of the World War 2. The Space Race all began in Germany during the beginning of the 1930s and continued during World War II when Germany researched and built ballistic missiles. Starting in the early 1930s, German aerospace engineers experimented with liquid-fueled rockets hoping they would be capable of reaching high altitudes and going long distances. The head of the German Army's Ballistics Branch, Lieutenant Colonel Karl Emil Becker, created a team of engineers to figure out how to use rockets as long-range artillery in order to get around the Treaty of Versailles' ban on research and development of long-range cannons. At the end of the war, American, British, and Soviet scientific intelligence teams competed to capture Germany's rocket......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Space Race

...The Space Race Modern American History: 1950 to the 21st Century John Carpenter The Space Race On October 4, 1957, a Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile launched Sputnik (Russian for “traveler”), the world’s first artificial satellite and the first man-made object to be placed into the Earth’s orbit. ( The race for space has official begun and the United States of America were losing. American’s thought that outer space was the new frontier and did not feel too comfortable knowing that the suppose enemy were the first to accomplish the mission. On the government side, knowing the Soviets’ had the capability to launch a missile into outer space, they had to have the same ability to launch a nuclear weapon. The competition became more than just getting to space; it also became a security issue to protect the US and other nations as well. After the Soviet R-7 went up in 1957, a month later the Russians sent up Sputnik 2, but this time was carrying a passenger “Rocky” the rocket dog. This proved that a living species could survive space travel. To have the Russians making all the “first” in space missions did not sit well with Americans and began to push the government into overtime to do the same. On January 1958 the U.S. launched their very own satellite called Explorer 1, designed by the US Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun. In the same year President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order to...

Words: 563 - Pages: 3


...Night time in space It is very easy to get busy up here and forget to “stop and smell the roses” as it were. (I think that is probably true for all of us everywhere!) So after dinner and before bedtime tonight I finally stopped and took a moment to watch the world go by during a night pass. It seems like it has been a while since I have done this. There are always excuses…other things that have to get done, e-mails to write, feet to warm up, too tired, there is always another day...blah, blah, blah. But I put my foot down, figuratively speaking, and took the time. We were passing up through the Atlantic going north across Africa and Europe and arcing down through Asia to come out east of Australia and New Zealand into the Pacific. I do not know exactly where we were but it was already night when I positioned myself at the docking compartment window. I think it was the one facing more starboard. I always get myself mixed up when I go into that module; I can never easily find the hatch again. It is completely night. There are thunderstorms across Africa and lightning is everywhere; bright flashes are going cloud to cloud illuminating the clouds as it arcs from one to the other. It is a private fireworks show. The storm is large and very spread out and at any moment you see 4 or 5 flashes occurring at one time, each one only lasting a moment. The colors range from something orange-ish to blue-white. Some are more like balls of light while others have that......

Words: 2391 - Pages: 10

Space Race

...Ryan Einspahr HIST101 Individual Project 4/13/2015 The Space Race After World War II the two most powerful nations began a battle between each other known as the Cold War. According to Staff (2010) “The two nations, The United States, and the Communist Soviet Union sought to prove superiority over one another through technology, its military firepower and - by extension - its political-economic system.” The Space Race lasted from the late 1950’s through the early ‘70’s with both countries making giant leaps into the realms of space we had yet to explore and discover. According to Staff (2010) “On October 4, 1957, a Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile launched Sputnik (Russian for “traveler”), the world’s first artificial satellite and the first man-made object to be placed into the Earth’s orbit.” Sputnik scared most Americans, with most people thinking that Russia could see our every move and potentially use a nuclear weapon from space against us. Although these were reasonable ideas the Sputnik satellite was nothing more than a harmless silver ball with a blinking light on it. This was truly the beginning of the Space Race. The United States knew it was losing ground on the Soviets and had to even up the score fast, and Explorer-I was the answer for the United States. According to Ludwig, George H. (April 1959) “Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States earth satellite and was sent aloft......

Words: 587 - Pages: 3

The Space Race

...| Greg Van Lieu HIST101-1502B-02 Professor Gleason May 25, 2015 THE SPACE RACE During the cold war a competition between the United States and Russia started as each country competed in seeing who would make it to space first. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed, it replaces the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) in October 1, 1958. On September 12, 1962 the race was defined by President John F Kennedy’s speech at Rice University and thus “The Space Race” had begun. In that speech, John F Kennedy stated “We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.” JFK RICE MOON SPEECH. (n.d.). The space race ignited America’s competitive spirit. The space race between the two world powers changed humanity with breaking the limits of new technology in space travel and catapulted the United States to evolve into the world leader by landing a human on the moon. On October 4 of 1957, the space race began between two of the most powerful countries when Russian launched an unmanned rocket called Sputnik 1 into orbit. “The launch of Sputnik 1 had a "Pearl Harbor" effect on American public opinion.” Launius, R. (n.d.). Then Russia, a month later, launched Sputnik 2 which included a small dog named Laika. The U.S. tried to catch up by launching two satellites. One of the satellites failed to reach orbit, however one of......

Words: 845 - Pages: 4


...I. Introduction: The purpose of this paper is an overview about the current space tourism industry with advanced developments of space vehicles. Until now, seven tourists have ridden Soyuz spacecraft, a Russian spacecraft, to the International Space Station. Capturing the potential demand of space tourism, many private companies began to introduce their new and well-designed spacecraft promising to enable tourist to travel to space. From now to the next couple of years, we are expected to see many launches including testing and commercial flights into suborbital and low Earth orbit. There are also some private companies, who were awarded by NASA for their space programs to carry astronauts to the space station. II. Virgin Galactic – Scaled Composites (Suborbital): Virgin Galactic – Scaled Composites founded by Burt Rutan designed a unique type of spacecraft. Using a mothership aircraft, the space plane will be carried to midair and then be released to launch toward the edge of the atmosphere. Using carbon composite construction, the company has introduced two version of the space plane: SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo along with two model of the mothership aircraft: WhiteKnightOne and WhiteKnightTwo. (Ref 1,3) A. Spaceship: a. SpaceshipOne – WhiteKnightOne: Scaled Composites first launched the SpaceShipOne to the suborbital in 2004 while the first of WhiteKnightOne was in 2002. Overall, the WhiteKnightOne’s features are carriage and launch of payloads up to 7...

Words: 4161 - Pages: 17


...advantageous alignment of a planet and its parent star in the system HD 189733, which is 63 light-years from Earth, enabled NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency’s XMM Newton Observatory to observe a dip in X-ray intensity as the planet transited the star. "Thousands of planet candidates have been seen to transit in only optical light," said Katja Poppenhaeger of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., who led a new study to be published in the Aug. 10 edition of The Astrophysical Journal. "Finally being able to study one in X-rays is important because it reveals new information about the properties of an exoplanet." The team used Chandra to observe six transits and data from XMM Newton observations of one. The planet, known as HD 189733b, is a hot Jupiter, meaning it is similar in size to Jupiter in our solar system but in very close orbit around its star. HD 189733b is more than 30 times closer to its star than Earth is to the sun. It orbits the star once every 2.2 days. HD 189733b is the closest hot Jupiter to Earth, which makes it a prime target for astronomers who want to learn more about this type of exoplanet and the atmosphere around it. They have used NASA's Kepler space telescope to study it at optical wavelengths, and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to confirm it is blue in color as a result of the preferential scattering of blue light by silicate particles in its atmosphere. The study with......

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Space were, the real world is no episode of Star Trek or Doctor Who. The initial exploration of space was met with extreme enthusiasm, but since then, the positive look on space travel has become almost non-existent, and for good reasons. To be blunt, the costs are outweighing the benefits. We have hoped for discovering Earth-like planets and other inhabitants in our universe, but these hopes have been squashed considering how large the universe is, and how impossible the possibility of reaping the benefits from the large task is. Earth is our home now, and we must deal with its problems first before we deal with any other planets. Earth’s issues must be tackled first, for the sake of our planet and everyone, man or animal, on it. Money is always an issue, no matter what. When looking at the “Pennies of Each Federal Spending Dollar” chart, space travel is so low in the national budget that it is included in the “all others” section, which only makes up 6% of the budget. Even when we went to the moon, there was no monetary return, so space travel is a waste of resources. We need all the extra money it can gather to protect our planet. Russell Roberts, a space enthusiast from the National Public Radio, said to “Leave the money here on Earth.” Like many others, he sees no point in using taxpayer dollars for useless, hopeless expeditions. Even though the freedom of traveling through space is promising, “we would do well to remember that we do not have a very good track record in......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

The Space Race

...Darrell C. Johnson Jr. History 101 08/02/2015 Unit 1- Individual Project The Space Race In the middle of the 20th century the world’s two super power, United States and the Soviet Union were in a competition known as the space race. The two super countries clashed for superiority of technology, military firepower, and its politics. The superiority was seen as necessary for national security and ideological superiority. By the mid-1950s, the United States and Soviet Cold War had taken its effects on both countries, because of this competition and the threat of nuclear weapons, espionage and counter-espionage between the two countries, the Korean War and a war of words and philosophy’s carried out in the media. All of these tensions continued throughout the space race, tensions heated up even more with events like the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and a war in Southeast Asia. On October 4, 1957, Sputnik, a Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile launched. Sputnik was the world’s first artificial satellite and first man-made object to be placed in orbit. The launch came as a surprise, but wasn’t pleasant to Americans. Space was seen as the next frontier, in the United States. This demonstration of the power of the R-7 missile seemed capable of delivering a nuclear warhead into U.S. air space. Which made gathering intelligence about Soviet military activities particularly urgent. The U.S. launched its own......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

EUR 4,99 | Internal and External Business Environement | Dead End Express