Theories of Poverty and Community Development

In: Social Issues

Submitted By maleka35
Words 3484
Pages 14
Theories of Poverty and Community Development
Jozette M. Broughton
Introduction to Sociology
Prof. Jeremy Bennett December 09, 2012

In this paper I will explore how two competing theories of poverty shape anti-poverty strategies. Since most rural community development efforts aim to relieve causes or symptoms of poverty, it makes a difference which theory of poverty is believed to be responsible for the problem being addressed. In this paper three theories of poverty are discussed from research in different news articles. It will be shown that two theories of poverty, not that these are the only two, place its origin from 1) individual deficiencies and 2) cumulative and circumstantial origins. Then, I show how each theory of poverty finds expression in common policy discussion and community development programs aimed to address the causes of poverty. Building a full understanding of each of these competing theories of poverty shows how they shape different community development approaches. While no one theory explains all instances of poverty, this paper aims to show how community development practices that address the complex and issues of poverty more effectively by reducing poverty compared to programs that address a single theory.
Theories of Poverty and Community Development
Community development has a variety of strategies available to meet the needs of those persons and groups who are less advantaged, usually in poverty. Community developers help all communities, but their passion lies disproportionately with people who do not have adequate personal resources to meet their needs or with communities with large populations of people who need assistance. These people and communities receiving attention from community developers are extensively varied in most other than being poor. The…...

Similar Documents

Community Development

...This paper intends to research the aims and objectives of a community development project, whilst examining the proponents that initially drove this project, highlighting both the positives and negatives. It will identify if Social Change has impinged on the policies, procedures and framework of this project and will endeavour to explore if the project meets the current needs of the local community. “Community development work supports people to work collectively for social change which will improve the quality of their lives and the communities in which they live.” Framework Information Hand-out (1999). Family Resource Centres were established by The Family Support Agency in 2003, under the auspices of The Department of Children and Youth Affairs as Community Development projects, to address the needs of marginalised individuals residing in disadvantaged areas. Like most community development projects, Rosemount Family Resource Centre was established as a direct result of a community coming together to address issues such as poor housing in three Dun Laoghaire Rathdown Local Authority blocks of flats. In general residents accepted occupancy of these flats on the understanding that it would be short term, but found out to their detriment that it was far from a stopgap. For many of the residents it took over ten years to be rehoused, some took as long as sixteen years. This complex was situated in the heart of Dundrum in what was seen to be an affluent area, yet the......

Words: 1719 - Pages: 7

Community Development

...What is locality development? As we stated in the first section of this chapter, community or locality development is community building through improving the process by which things get done. This can be an end in itself, but it can also be seen as the beginning of a larger process. While locality development can be defined as improving process, it, like all community organizing, must be focused on action and results. You can't get people involved in a process, or in creating a process, unless there's some goal at the end, whether that's persuading the city to install a new traffic light or ending poverty. That's why, when we discuss how to engage in and use locality development, we include choosing issues that speak to felt community needs. Only by focusing on taking action to achieve outcomes that address those issues are you likely to get citizens involved.   Section 1 identifies four types of community organizing: * Locality development creates an infrastructure for community activism and action. * Social planning and policy change uses the political and other systems to create policies that work toward improving the quality of life for all citizens. * Social action and systems advocacy engage citizens in understanding and building power, and using it to advocate and negotiate for the interests of the community. * Coalition building constructs community-wide groups of organizations and individuals, either to work on specific issues or to address more......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Community Development

...After I reading the article of “Strategic Management of Places”, and I know there are six dimensions of organization and special structure. The first dimension is that monopoly firms processing market power. The second dimension is that many firms are in the situation of competitive markets. The third is that many small or middle entrepreneurial startups also promote the economy of that region. The forth one is that specialize one field and take advantage of this field scale to reduce the transaction expenditure. The fifth dimension is that the region should have the diversity. And the last dimension is that cluster is very important. Although, not all these dimensions exist in one place, they still play an important role for the economy development for a place. And the place of interest I would like discuss is mainly focus on Beijing. Beijing is the capital city of China, which leads the Chinese economy. And now I analyze how Beijing housing policy could benefit from its organization and spatial structure. 1. Market Power a. I mentioned my policy in the last paper. The affordable housing policy is refer to the Chinese government organizes the real estate enterprises and some offices, which collect funds for cooperation housing-building to use the lower price than the market price of housing to sell to a median or low income families. So, the government made this policy, and made the price decision in the market. (Lower than the market price). Although, the......

Words: 610 - Pages: 3

Community Development

...THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ALLEVIATING POVERTY. Alleviation of poverty has been a priority in many developing nations. Poverty normally develops from many different factors, some of the basic causes include; lack of access to clean water and sanitation, lack of facilities for adequate healthcare, lack of access to educational opportunities, inadequate nutrition, lack of adequately paid employment, inadequate or expensive transport facilities and limited or expensive power supplies. Urban poverty is different from rural poverty; poverty in rural areas tends to be more widespread than in the urban areas. This is due to factors such as the inadequate employment opportunities in the rural areas, access to a range of key facilities is much reduced, and many households are headed by women often due to abandonment of families by the males and sanitation and water supply deficiencies are more intense leading to ill health. A close to 1.2 billion people i.e. a fifth of the world’s population lives in conditions of abject poverty. Almost 800 million people in the developing world are chronically hungry and this is why poverty reduction strategies have been adopted all over the world. From the early 1990s, different targets and goals have been agreed upon for the reduction of poverty in its various forms and dimensions. These targets have been adopted in the millennium goal one which aims to eradicate poverty and hunger. Governments have prioritized this millennium goal......

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Discussion on the Community Rights Theory

...on the community rights theory of characteristics of stock ownership Wang He Law School of Fudan University Abstract::This article is based on the community rights theory which plays the dominant role in the contemporary academic debates about the nature of stock ownership, including the theory’s crucial points and ideas, its advantages as well as the disadvantages, then express the writer’s personal view about it. Key words:stock ownership,community rights,independence,property,one man’s company The stock ownership is used to definite shareholder’s a series of equities about the economic interests and operating management based on contribution to the investment. The Article IV in Corporate Law of china also regulate the shareholder’s rights. There are widespread debates and discussions about the characteristics of stock ownership for it’s significance to solve the problems with in the government-owned enterprise and the shared corporation, especially after the reformation in 1990s.The community rights theory holds most supporters, and it’s being taken as a popular theory. General summary and superiority of community rights theory This theory holds the view that the identity of community member in profit community is the fundamental prominent of shareholder’s rights, namely that shareholder’s rights is one of the community rights. The community rights theory was proposed by German scholar Renaud in 1875, and it divided into two main streams(single rights theory......

Words: 1888 - Pages: 8

Community Development

... JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY ARUSHA CAMPUS | DIPLOMA IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT – Y1S1 | INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY | | GRACE RUHINDA HD122-CO11-0247/2013 | 5/28/2014 | ASSIGNMENT 1: Discuss the Contributions of Max Weber as a Founding Father of Sociology | Max Weber born as Karl Emil Maxmillian Webe (1864 – 1920); a German Sociologist, philosopher and political economist with ideas that influenced; social theory, social research and entire discipline of sociology. Weber as one of the three known founding fathers of Sociology is mostly cited with the other founding fathers; Karl Marx and Emil Durkheim in social field. Weber has been prominent in methodological antipositivism, where he argues the study of social action through interpretation of ideas. In his arguments, Weber sees the urge to look at ideas, especially the meanings put onto things and the role of changes of ideas that contribute to society and social changes. His main concern was to understand the processes of rationalization, secularization and disenchantment that he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity; which resulted to a new way of thinking about the world. He used the German word “verstehen” to discuss deeper understanding of the meanings people put to things; a word that is still used in today’s sociology to analyze the important elements of culture and society. Weber was best known for his thesis combining economic sociology and the sociology of religion as...

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Community Development

...Community Development Vol. 41, No. 3, July–September 2010, 298–322 Incorporating social justice in tourism planning: racial reconciliation and sustainable community development in the Deep South Alan W. Bartona* and Sarah J. Leonardb a b Downloaded By: [University at Buffalo, the State University of New York (SUNY)] At: 06:29 3 November 2010 Social Sciences, Delta State University, DSU Box 3264, Cleveland MS 38733, USA; The College Board, Chicago, USA Tourism can serve as a vehicle for sustainable community development by contributing to equity and social justice. This happens as tourists learn about marginal groups through educational tourism, engage in development projects with host-area residents, undertake pilgrimages that bring greater meaning and cohesiveness to an ethnic identity, or encounter stories that transform their view of social injustice and spur further action to reduce inequities. Tourism planning can produce a sense of reconciliation when it brings historically divided groups together. An example is found in Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, where a group of white and African American residents are collaborating to develop tourism projects designed around a narrative of reconciliation, while they use the process of tourism planning to work towards racial reconciliation within their community. This case illustrates strategies tourism planners employ and challenges they face when they envision tourism as more than merely a means of economic growth...

Words: 13627 - Pages: 55

Community Development

... WAYS TO HELP THE COMMUNITY DESPITE THE BUSY SCHEDULE Introduction Community involvement is the process of engaging in dialogue and collaboration with community members which means building relationships. Community involvement means spending the extra time, without being compensated. It’s the way in which an individual shares the resources with the communities that one impacts upon. It encompasses all forms of individual support for the community, including charitable donations, community projects and sponsorships. WAYS TO HELP 1. To seek and encourage organizations to sponsor local events such marathon, fundraiser for education, sports or health campaigns. This will assist needy children and less fortunate in the community. 2. Donate foodstuffs to the homeless, needy families and children’s home. Invite less fortunate for parties. 3. Appeal for clothing from neighbors and then donate them to local children’s home. 4. Buy foodstuffs and medicine for the elderly and sick people in the community. 5. Invite and sponsor motivational talks from experts on such areas as drug awareness, health concerns, safety, development and education. 6. Organize community clean up in local markets and dispensaries. Appeal to the community members to keep their environment clean. 7. Organize a campaign to raise money to purchase sporting equipments and encourage local clubs on social events. 8. Mobilize the community to plant flowers and trees in public areas. This will beautify and preserve......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Contemporary Issues in Community Development

...CDEV 461: CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT TOPIC: THE EMERGING TREND OF DRUG ABUSE AND PEDDLING IN EGERTON UNIVERSITY SUBMITED TO: DR. KAMURU MAKAL DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT STUDIES. DATE OF SUBMISSION ABSTRACT Drug abuse is one of the top problems confronting the nation today especially among the youth. Incidences of drug and alcohol abuse and related antisocial behavior have tremendously increased in the resent years this has become matter of concern to the government, parents, NGOs and other relevant agencies. The need of drugs and alcohol in universities has birthed entrepreneurs in drug peddling. As a result many of these students want money badly and they are ready to venture in whatever business just so they can make ends meet. Alcohol is the most frequently abused drug followed by bang’ Miraa, tobacco and shisha. Egerton University In access to alcoholic drinks has been made easy due to the close proximity of bars and entertainment joints to the university gates. The factors that contribute to drug abuse and drug peddling include; the gap, association with drug using peers, source of quick cash, parental drug abuse, and antisocial behavior among others. Disadvantages of drug abuse and peddling include; imprisonment, addiction, lack of concentration, death, violence among others. TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii 1.0INTRODUCTION 1 Background information 1 Trends 2 Statement of the......

Words: 2533 - Pages: 11

Community Development

...Wyatt Stanford Social Innovation Review Winter 2010 Copyright  2010 by Leland Stanford Jr. University All Rights Reserved Stanford Social Innovation Review 518 Memorial Way, Stanford, CA 94305-5015 Ph: 650-725-5399. Fax: 650-723-0516 Email:, In an area outside Hyderabad, India, between the suburbs and the countryside, a young woman—we’ll call her Shanti—fetches water daily from the always-open local borehole that is about 300 feet from her home. She uses a 3-gallon plastic container that she can easily carry on her head. Shanti and her husband rely on the free water for their drinking and washing, and though they’ve heard that it’s not as safe as water from the Naandi Foundation-run community treatment plant, they still use it. Shanti’s family has been drinking the local water for generations, and although it periodically makes her and her family sick, she has no plans to stop using it. Shanti has many reasons not to use the water from the Naandi treatment center, but they’re not the reasons one might think. The center is within easy walking distance of her home—roughly a third of a mile. It is also well known and affordable (roughly 10 rupees, or 20 cents, for 5 gallons). Being able to pay the small fee has even become a status symbol for some villagers. Habit isn’t a factor, either. Shanti is forgoing the safer water because of a series of flaws in the overall design of the system. Although Shanti can......

Words: 4784 - Pages: 20

Theories of Development

...rigorous, more conclusive future study will not begin withan inadequate understanding of the nature of the management problem. The findings discoveredthrough exploratory research would the researchers to emphasize learning more about the particulars ofthe findings in subsequent conclusive studies. Exploratory research rarely yields definitive answers. It addresses the "what" question: "what is thissocial activity really about?" It is difficult to conduct because there are few guidelines to follow. Specifically there could be a number of goals of exploratory research. Goals of Exploratory Research: * Become familiar with the basic facts, setting, and concerns; * Develop well-grounded picture of the situation; * Develop tentative theories, generate new ideas, conjectures, or hypotheses; * Determine the feasibility of conducting the study; * Formulate questions and refine issues for more systematic inquiry; and * Develop techniques and a sense of direction for future research. For exploratory research, the researcher may use different sources for getting information like: (i)experience surveys, (ii) secondary data analysis, (iii) case studies, and (iv) pilot studies. As part of the experience survey the researcher tries to contact individuals who are knowledgeable abouta particular research problem. This constitutes an informal experience survey. Another economical and quick source of background information is secondary data analysis. It......

Words: 3814 - Pages: 16

Community Development

...title: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND THE BASIC NEEDSAPPROACH Semester: 1 Due date: 8 march 2016 Unique number: 813886 | TITLE: Outline the purpose of community development according to the following approaches; (a) Critical theory (b) Functionalism (c) Symbolic interactionism TABLE OF CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CRITICAL THEORY APPROACH 3. FUNCTIONALISM APPROACH 4. SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM APPROACH 5. CONCLUSION SOURCES CONSULTED INTRODUCTION Community development has a wealth of definitions depending on context and history. A familiar and often cited definition of community development is that of United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (1956) in which it state that in community development the effort of the people are united with those of government authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities and integrate these communities into the life of the nations to enable them to contribute fully to national progress (Maistry 2001). According to Maistry (2001) the objective of community development is to build healthy functioning communities. This is achieved through interventions for community well-being and driven by the community themselves and to the extent that is required, external support through the provision of resources and services in ways that sense the holistic developmental needs of a community. For the purpose of the essay will outline the purpose of community......

Words: 1311 - Pages: 6

Theories of Development

...Theories of Development Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following theories relies on the understanding of internal drives and emotions to answer the "whys" of human development? A) Psychoanalytic B) Humanistic C) Biological D) Cognitive Answer: A Page Ref: 24 2) Psychoanalytic theorists suggests that human development depends on A) our ability to accommodate external stimuli. B) our ability to modify our behavior based on the prospect of rewards or punishment. C) the influence of internal drives and emotions upon behavior. D) social relationships. Answer: C Page Ref: 24 3) Which of the following most accurately describes Freud's model of the personality? A) Formal operations B) Id, ego, and identity C) Consciousness, preconsciousness, and reality D) Id, ego, superego Answer: D Page Ref: 24 4) Which aspect of our personality demands to be satisfied in physically pleasurable ways? A) Executive control of the ego B) Moral guardian of the superego C) Libido of the id D) Reality principle of the superego Answer: C Page Ref: 24 5) Jada saw some money on the kitchen table. She really wanted to take it but her conscience kept her from it. Which part of Jada's personality is telling her that it would be socially unacceptable to take the money? A) Superego B) Ego C) Unconscious D) Id Answer: A Page Ref: 24 6) According to Freud's model of personality, which of the following...

Words: 6155 - Pages: 25

Theories of Development

... Theories of Development Matt Sellitri Psy-104 Child and Adolescence Development Allen, Craig Sept14th-2009 Thesis In my paper, on child development I will discuss three different points of view on cognitive, physical and emotional development. I will write about the three differences and similarities. I will discuss how they have an impact on the way they help in the development of children. I will explain how important child development is in regards to assisting in a child’s potential. I will show the relationship between the developmental domain and the developmental theory. I will focus on all three domains and how they influence each other. Child development is an ongoing process that goes through many complex changes. Children are in a constant state of change from the moment they are born all the way to being a young adult. They develop many characteristics and personalities such as, quantitative changes, and qualitative changes. They area key component in any childs development. There have been many scientific studies on early child development. Many theorists such as, Charles Darwin have studied and devoted a lot of time to the evolution of human development. Scientists, throughout many years have developed three separate domains. In our text, on page nine, they are listed as follows, physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. Physical development is the growth of the body itself. Such as......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Theories of Development

...Theories of Development Amanda M. Glover Walden University There are dozens of developmental theories. There are theories that believe developmental a child learn behavior and other theories believe children are subjects of their environment. There is an age-old debate, dating back to the earliest Greek philosophers, of whether knowledge is innate-that is we are born with it-or whether it is learned through experience (Cohen, 2011). There is no proven scientific way to determine if nature or nurture controls a child’s behavior and how they develop. The developmental theories that I lean toward the most are as a Piaget’s cognitive stages of development, Freud’s psychosexual development, and Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. Piaget’s cognitive stages of development suggest that at each stage of a person’s life they learn a new skill and as they process in age their skills progress. He has identified four major stages; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Sensorimotor occurs from birth to 2, at this stage the child is learning to use his or her hands, feet, and eyes. He or she learns to walk and crawl or use the bathroom. The next stage is preoperational occurs from 2-7, at this stage a child “engages in symbolic thought, but dominated by perception” (Perdue University , 2009). The third stage is concrete operational this occurs from ages 7 to 11. At this stage a child’s thoughts are more rational and logical. Children......

Words: 1314 - Pages: 6

Dystopia S01E02 | Temporada 1 | Falling Skies (2011)