Trade Management

In: Business and Management

Submitted By isaaclee
Words 415
Pages 2
Business Law
Tutorial 1
The Singapore Legal System
1a. Small Claims Tribunal; Magistrates’ Courts; District Courts
b. The High Court and The Court of Appeal
c. The Court of Appeal
d. Jurisdiction refers to the limit of a court’s power to deal with the different types of cases. A party has to consider the legal principle of jurisdiction as certain courts has its limit to hear claims at a certain amount. For example, in civil matters a Magistrates’ Court’s jurisdiction is limited to hearing claims of not more than $60,000. It does not have the jurisdiction to hear claims of more than $60,000. e(i) The Subordinate Courts under the Small Claims Tribunal as it was a dispute concerns of a contract for the provision of services. Therefore, Nail O bar is liable for breach of contract as payments have been made for the package and yet appointment are not given. e(ii) The High Court as bankruptcy proceeding is one of the cases that can only be heard by the High Court. e(iii) District Courts as these are courts of first instance which hear both civil and criminal cases with limited claims not exceeding $250,000 in civil matters.
2a. Plaintiff will be Stargalaxy while Apex is the defendant. The judge must decide whether the usage of satellite pictures is a copyright infringement and should Apex pay for compensation.
b. I DON’T’ KNOW
c. Judges are bound to follow the rules laid down by judges in previous cases provided the facts in both cases are substantially similar and the earlier case was a decision of a Superior Court.
d. No. There was a similar case regarding satellite pictures that was brought up by Century Travel Pte Ltd and Zenith Publishers before the case of Stargalaxy and Apex was filed. From this case, The Court of Appeal held that there is no infringement of copyright as satellite pictures of resort towns do not enjoy copyright protection.
e. The…...

Similar Documents

Trade

...Bulletin Volume 1, Number 1, 2005 © 2005 by the State Bank of Pakistan. All rights reserved. Reproduction is permitted with the consent of the Editor. OPINIONS Trade between India and Pakistan: Potential Items and the MFN Status Abid Qamar∗ During the last several years, opening up of trade between India and Pakistan has become the most sought after question at many policy forums and among concerned groups. The issue has gained particular importance after India granted the Most Favored Nation (MFN) status to Pakistan, to comply with the principles of World Trade Organization (WTO) regime in 1995, and Pakistan’s reluctance in reciprocating so far. It is believed that increased trade relationship can play a vital role in normalizing the political relationship between the two countries. This will, therefore, benefit millions of people living in both countries as the resources would be diverted from less desirable areas, such as defense spending, to poverty alleviation initiatives. Given the likely impact of trade liberalization between the two countries, the unavailability of any established estimate of potential trade and the items likely to be traded is unfortunate. With a view to come up with some estimates based on some methodology, however simple it is, this note attempts to find the potential of trade between the two countries by identifying the potential items. It estimates the scope for exports and savings by substituting our imports from the rest......

Words: 5232 - Pages: 21

Trade

...Discussion Board 2 Response Ashley DeCleene Trade restrictions are intact for many reasons. There are good kinds of trade that help boost economies and there are bad types of trade that brings drugs into our countries. Without the use of trade restrictions, countries would not be able to restrict the bad trade from inundating this country. A main case study that could be done on this is the trade relations between the United States and Colombia. Colombia is one of the leading traders of drugs worldwide. The United States consumes 40% of all cocaine worldwide. Naturally Colombia would want to trade drugs with the United States, or traffic these drugs. Trade directly relates with economy. In an attempt to potentially save a country from having a large number of trade restrictions on them, there could be new products to trade. In order to boost the economy, the United States could import more Colombian goods. The promotion of fair-trade coffee would help boost the economy of many campesinos. By offering the choice of fair-trade coffee in government buildings, the U.S. would improve the Colombian economy, while not having to send money to Colombia in order to do so. With more intelligence and training of the Colombian military and police, provided they pass the certification and Leahy Amendments, the counter attacks by the Colombian government could be more effective, which would allow less money to be spent by the U.S. in aid. In addition, Colombia would have to pay......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Trade

...markets have become the driving forces fueling global growth in retail sales and space. Over the 10-year history of A. T. Kearney’s Global Retail Development Index (GRDI), an annual research project designed to help global retailers prioritize which countries to enter, the population of developing markets increased 11%, while retail sales per capita has almost doubled, retail space has more than tripled and Internet access grew by nearly 500%. Clearly, developing markets hold significant potential for retail growth, but picking which markets are prime for development has been a tough learning experience. Initially many global retailers focused their developing market expansion aspirations on China, which gained acceptance into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. As the decade unfolded, retailers were drawn to the potential of Southeast Asia, the BRIC nations (Brazil, Russia, India and China) and Eastern European markets like the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Rumania, Slovakia and Slovenia following their joining the European Union (EU) in 2004. But over the 10 years of retail growth tracked by our research, five nations have consistently ranked in the Top 10: China, India, Russia, Vietnam and Chile. Almost everyone understands China’s size and therefore its market potential. More difficult is establishing its true market value, particularly when it comes to the emerging middle class and burgeoning urban population. As many retailers......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Trade

...Technology in International Trade Technology plays a major role in international trade. Databases, overnight delivery and faxes have opened the world market to not only larger companies but small ones too. To add to this globalization, companies and even competitors are combining and forming alliances to cut cost and increase the profit margin. Chrysler, General Motors and Ford have formed an alliance in research and development to avoid duplication. These alliances are not only with domestic companies but they also go over national lines. Companies are pushing for integration of the world economy in hope for increased profits and governments are beginning to listen. Since 1986 (GATT) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade have taken the incitive to move towards the liberalization of international trade. GATT members agreed to reduce tariff and non-tariff trade barriers. From 1986 to the present due to GATT's lead many markets have been open to the United States increasing exports and increasing efficiency through competition. One of the most aggressive liberalization groups to follow GATT's lead is APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Community). APEC consist of 18 countries that account for 1/2 of the worlds output. The three largest economies Japan, China and the United States are members. APEC leaders are committed to achieving free and open trade for the......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Trade

... North American Free Trade Agreement   In January 1994, the United States, Mexico, and Canada implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), forming the largest free trade zone in the world. The goal of NAFTA is to create better trading conditions through tariff reduction, removal of investment barriers, and improvement of intellectual property protection. NAFTA continues to gradually reduce tariffs on set dates and aims to eliminate all tariffs by the year 2004.      However, some of NAFTA's consequences do seem obviously disadvantageous. First, the reduced barriers bring an imbalanced relationship. For instance: the United States and our two neighbors, reduced barriers to trade have led to much larger trade deficits. In 2008, United States deficit with Canada was $78 billion. With Mexico, United States trade deficit was $65 billion in 2008. Second, due to the negtive effect of NAFTA, Mexico lost 1.3 million farm jobs. When NAFTA removed tariffs, corn and other grains were exported to Mexico below cost. Rural Mexican farmers could not compete. At the same time, Mexico reduced its subsidies to farmers from 33.2% of total farm income in 1990 to 13.2% in 2001.      以下为advantage   How does NAFTA benefit trade? First, it eliminatestariffs. This reduces inflation by decreasing the costs of imports. Second, NAFTA creates agreements on international rights for business investors. This reduces the cost of trade, which spurs investment and......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Trade

...1. Analyse the validity of the objections to free trade and critically discuss the role of international organisations in regulating trade between countries. Does how the control of trade has impacted positively or negatively on a company of your choice. 2. To what extent should managers feel threatened by organisations that try to protect the rights of workers? Is it possible for the organisations to work with managers to the benefit of both businesses and employees? You should critically analyse the intentions of both types of stakeholder in a case study you have chosen. 3. Critically analyse the role of the chief financial officer (CFO) in contributing to the strategy of a company. If you were in a CFO position at a company of your choice, how would you expand your responsibilities to be more strategic? You should show how the company could benefit from the expansion of the CFO’s role. 4. Critically analyse an example of a company that exhibits a U-form structure. Advise on the advantages and disadvantages of moving it to a matrix structure. The basic format of the essay should be a theory, concept or approach which is critically analysed. Then a case study or practical example should be presented that not only illustrates how the theory can be applied, but also reveal further critical insights into the theory itself. The conclusion should demonstrate how the case study can lead to an improvement in the theory. Students should make all efforts to avoid plagiarism by......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Supply Chain Management and Fair Trade

...Supply Chain Management and Fair Trade Executive Summary Resources are scarce and overstretched as a result of the fiercely competitive global environment which is as a result of globalisation, population increment and development of new technologies. On the basis of food food supply chain’s dependency on these scarce resources, sustainability of food has to be adopted through various approaches – the conventional approach (freetraide food supply chain) and the alternative approach (fairtrade food supply chain). This report focuses on sustainability, challenges of sustainability, key reasons for sustainability, food supply chain sustainability theme as well as a critical examination, analysis and appraisal of the fairtrade food food supply chain as advocated by Fairtrade Foundation and Fairtrade International and the normal freetrade food food supply chain through a comparative analysis which is based on consultation of materials from Fairtrade Foundation, Fairtrade International as well as other secondary sources (such as textbooks, articles, journals and websites). The report concludes that freetrade is a better option to manage the partnership between producers and consumers within a food food supply chain. However, fairtrade could still flourish if its techniques and principles are exposed to a continuous external and internal scrutiny against the continuous movement of the forces of demand and supply which always shape the dynamic nature of the competitive......

Words: 8072 - Pages: 33

Trade

...In short, mercantilists posited fundamental disharmony among competing economic interests domestically and internationally. The disharmony was so acute that governments needed to regulate and control all aspects of economic life. Two concrete examples illustrate typical mercantilist policies. Navigation acts required all trade to be carried in ships of the regulating country. In this way a country could collect income from all trade conducted between it and other countries regardless of the origin of the goods traded. (British use of such navigation acts provided American colonists one irritant in their relations with the mother country that would eventually lead to the Declaration of Independence.) A second example of mercantilist policy was the chartering of trading companies granted monopoly privileges by the government. The British East India Company established in 1600 is the classic example of such an arrangement.3 One of the earliest challenges to mercantilist ideas was provided by Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations published in 1776. His school subsequently labeled economic liberalism or laissez-faire, sought to explain why mercantilist regulation was unnecessary and indeed might be positively harmful to the economy. Underlying the ideas of economic liberalism are two assumptions that provide a stark contrast to those made by mercantilists. First, economic growth does occur which means that economic competition is not zero-sum and conflict over finite......

Words: 266 - Pages: 2

Trade

...fellow enterprises. It should be noted, however, that for FDI statistics, only cross-border transactions and positions between FDI-related enterprises should be recorded. Financial derivatives are financial instruments that are linked to another specific financial instrument or indicator or commodity, and through which specific financial risks can be traded in financial markets in their own right. The value of a financial derivative is based on the price of an underlying item, such as an asset or index. Unlike debt instruments, financial derivatives do not require the advance of principal amounts that are required to be repaid and do not generate investment income. Financial derivatives are used for a number of purposes including risk management, hedging, arbitrage between markets, and speculation. Financial derivatives are excluded from direct investment. Financial intermediaries consist of (i) central bank; (ii) deposit-taking corporations other than central bank (e.g. banks); (iii) money market funds; (iv) investment funds other than money market funds; (v) other financial intermediaries, except insurance companies and pension funds; (vi) insurance corporations and (vii) pension funds. However, for the purposes of excluding debt between related financial intermediaries, insurance corporations and pension funds are not considered “financial intermediaries”. A financial lease is a method of financing the purchase of a good by the lessee (as opposed to taking out a loan for......

Words: 7307 - Pages: 30

Management of Trade Receivables

...time. • CHARACTER : make some assessment of the customer’s character. The willingness to pay will depend of the honesty and integrity of the individual whom the business is dealing. When the customer is a business, this will mean assessing the characters of its senior managers as well as their reputation within the industry.  The selling business must feel confident that the customer will make every effort to pay any amounts owing. A business will need to gather information concerning the ability and willingness of the customer to pay the amounts owing on or before the due dates. B- SOURCES OF INFORMATION Possible sources of information that a business may use to assess a potential credit customer (company) include: • Trades references : references from others suppliers – danger that a customer selects when giving detail of other suppliers • Bank references : ask for a bank reference • Published financial statement: a limited company is obliged by law to file a copy of its annual financial statements with the Register of Companies. – available for public inspection – the annual report is available on the company’s website • The customer: interviews with the director of the customer business and visits to its premises may be carried out to gain an impression of the way that the customer conducts its business. • Credit agencies: specialist agencies exist to provide information that can be used to assess the creditworthiness of a potential......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Unit 15: on-Licensed Trade Management

...UNIT 15: ON-LICENSED TRADE MANAGEMENT Get assignment help for this unit at assignmenthelpuk@yahoo.com LO1 Understand key issues that impact on the licensed trade industry Brewing and the licensed trade: economic, social and legislative history Agreements: freehold; leasehold; tenancy Types of licensed premises: family; themed; community; country; town houses; branded pubs including franchises Future developments: national; EU influences Industry challenges/issues: the health agenda; responsible retailing; anti-alcohol lobby; smoking ban; violence; ethics; social responsibility; alcohol related disorder; gambling; pub closures; sustainability and the environment LO2 Understand the effective development and operation of on-licensed premises Design: interior and exterior design, ergonomics, customer and workflow, economic use of space, provision for family areas (indoor/outdoor) Regulatory constraints: licensing law; health authorities; the police; planning authorities; licensing justices; weights and measures; safety; risk analysis Profitable product development: food; liquor; games; Amusement with Prizes (AWP) and Amusement with Skills (AWS); profit and loss statement analysis Stock and cash security: Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS) systems; associated integrated software and paper systems; the prevention of fraudulent practices; till security; security of cash on premises and transference Staffing: structures; recruitment; training; retention; outstanding performance;...

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Trade

...on the back of any food product that may contain them. With laws that govern the usage of food additives and GMO’s, consumers can then “vote with their dollars”, having a big influence on what type of items will be produced.  I think the fair trade philosophy is most ideal in todays world. Educated consumers want to buy products that are manufactured with no cruelty and where equal rights for the people who construct the products, are incorporated in their daily activity. In 2011, Apple was the headline of many news article that spoke about the conditions of the factories where Apple products are produced. Many people were disgusted with the way workers in the Foxconn factories where treated with even reports of people committing suicide because of the brutal work conditions. I think the fair trade philosophy will work great for the global economy because it will create better work environments for manufacturing facilities, causing more consumers to feel guilt free about purchasing products from companies that have a history of promoting forced and child labor. For the government, I think the free trade philosophy will be most ideal. Free trade will promote the economy by allowing consumers to spend more on frivolous items. Free trade proponents suggest that increased competition increases the availability of innovative jobs as companies strive to create new products and expand to target export markets. More jobs and more spending creates more money for the government. ...

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Trades

...64 Management Insight INDIAN FUTURES MARKET : AN ANALYSIS Agha Nuruzzaman* ABSTRACT The Indian government’s efforts are directed towards the establishment of a free, fair, transparent and fully informed market with help of the Futures market, so that futures prices are truly determined by the forces of demand and supply. In the long term, the continuing rapid growth of economy in India creates a huge potential for Futures market. This study is an effort to understand the factors under PEST Analysis. For this purpose, data from different sources were collected and later analyzed by using statistical techniques. With an improving agriculture, widening scope of education, a balanced economy, friendlier infrastructure, vividly sketched out laws unstained by any kind of corruption will create the right climate for swift growth of the futures market. The PEST analysis shows that most of the factors considered are indeed going in favour of India’s futures market. INTRODUCTION A futures contract is a legally binding agreement to buy or sell a commodity or financial instrument sometime in the future at a price agreed upon at the time of the trade. While actual physical delivery of the underlying assets seldom takes place, futures contracts are nonetheless standardized according to delivery specifications, including the quality, quantity, and time and location. The only variable is price, which is discovered through the trading process. In this study we ...

Words: 6883 - Pages: 28

Trade

...Trade is the process of purchasing and procuring of goods and services with the object of selling them at a profit. Trade means buying and selling of goods. It involves the exchange of commodities for money or money's worth. It is the means by which people sell those goods which they do not need. Traders serve as the link between producers and consumers. They help in direct­ing the flow of goods to the most profitable markets. They, also bring about the equitable distribution of goods. In the absence of traders, producers will have to go in search of consumers. Trade is the nucleus of commerce. Other parts of commerce such as transport, insurance, warehousing, banking and advertising revolve around trade. Trade may be classified into home trade and foreign trade. Home trade may further be sub­divided into wholesale trade and retail trade. Similarly, foreign trade made by sub-divided into import, export and entrepot trade. These various types of trade are described below: 1. Home trade: Home trade is also known as domestic trade or internal trade. It means buying and selling within the geographical boundaries of one country. Both the buyer and seller belong to the same country. For example, trade between Bombay and New Delhi is home trade. Payments in this type of trade are made in the currency of the country. Home trade is of two types: (a) Wholesale Trade: It implies buying and selling of goods in large quantities. Goods are sold to industrial......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Trade

...tariff or tax on a good are that it will raise the domestic price of the good, which will help the domestic seller make more money from the foreign buyer. A downside to placing tariffs on goods is that it makes the domestic buyer pay more and can put a limit on how much the domestic buyer can buy. Quotas have benefits and disadvantages as well. A benefit from placing a quota on a good is that it could create a surplus, but could only be for those who have the license to import the good. A disadvantage of placing a quota on a good is that it may raise the price on an item and could possibly put a restriction or restrictions on trade with other countries. Although there are benefits and losses to international trade when it comes to tariffs and quotas it still can help a countries standard of living in the trade is done properly and within the World Trade Organizations guidelines....

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

No Activity AU - Season 2 | Watch 9-1-1 | Music Bank In Jakarta