Traditional Brick Is More Vulnerable in Earthquake

In: Science

Submitted By kamrul
Words 1004
Pages 5
TRADITIONAL BRICK IS MORE VULNERABLE IN EARTHQUAKE

Dr. Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder

The history of brick making is not known to me but nearly 2050 years ago temple were made of these traditional brick. Nowadays the style of making home is that the cement and sand is kept between two brick but previously it’s a clay that is kept between two brick. In ancient times the styles of roof were also different. It used to be flat tiles but nowadays concrete and steel are used for making the roof. In ancient times the tiles were also made up of clay mud after burning in the fire. Today in Bangladesh the size of brick is 9.5''X4.5''X2.75'' which is seen all over the country. This brick is kept one after another and make the wall. In between two brick the paste of cement and sand is being used as a binding material. The readers might think that all these things are earlier whenever we keep our eyes it is seen. What new to tell. My opinion is that year after year we are doing the same mistake to make our buildings in local construction practice by using those ancient clay brick. What is this mistake and to recover the mistake and doing appropriate work is not concerned by anyone. When I saw that one or two organization understood this problem and try to change the ancient brick use and to do something new and facing lots of criticism then there is no other way except being disappointed. honestly speaking when the use of clay brick started is not known to me but in some places some temples are found to be mad by brick as per I know except Bangladesh west Bengal and Tripura of India and Nepal are not using this type of clay brick. No doubt Bangladesh is an earthquake prone county if we consider environmental, over weight/ heavy weight and earthquake we should not use. Clay mud made these traditional brick following are the some reason why people are using year after year this…...

Similar Documents

Brick

...A Brick is a block, or a single unit of a ceramic material used in masonry construction. Typically bricks are stacked together, or laid as brickwork using various kinds ofmortar to hold the bricks together and make a permanent structure. Bricks are typically produced in common or standard sizes in bulk quantities. They have been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history. In the general sense, a "brick" is a standard-sized weight-bearing building unit. Bricks are laid in horizontal courses, sometimes dry and sometimes with mortar. When the term is used in this sense, the brick might be made from clay, lime-and-sand, concrete, or shaped stone. In a less clinical and more colloquial sense, bricks are made from dried earth, usually from clay-bearing subsoil. In some cases, such as adobe, the brick is merely dried. More commonly it is fired in a kiln of some sort to form a true ceramic. A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are often found washed up on beaches by beachcombers. The shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have rotted out. Apart from mollusk shells, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods. Marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae......

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Assam Earthquake and Our Buildings

...ASSAM EARTHQUAKE AND OUR BUILDINGS Md Ali Akbar MOLLICK* Introduction An earthquake of magnitude 8.7 on the Richter Scale (8.1 on the Moment Magnitude Scale) occurred on 12th June 1897 at 5.11pm in the Assam Basin, some 250 kilometers (km) north from Dhaka, 130 km north-west from Sylhet and 70 km north from today's Bangladesh and Indian border. The epicenter was 26o (N) and 91o (E) and focal depth was 32 km. The shaking was felt over an area of 650,000 square-kilometer (sq-km) and destruction was taking place over an area of 390,000 sq-km. Many masonry buildings including temples, over the destructive area such as Dhubri, Goalpara, Guwahati, Kuch Bihar, Agortola, Kolkata and other cities inside India, either totally or partially damaged due to this earthquake. The earthquake created general panic in Dhaka and other areas of today's Bangladesh including Rangpur, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Natore, Mymensing, Dhaka, Chittagong, Comilla, Noakhali, Jamalpur etc. A total number of 1542 persons were killed due to this earthquake out of which five were from Dhaka including two foreigners. Three buildings such as Shaheen Medical Hall, Temple Nazi's Shabagh Math and house occupied by Mrs Stansbury were totally damaged and the government houses for commissioner, collector, judge and civil surgeon were partially damaged in Dhaka, which were rebuilt. The total cost for the rehabilitation was 150,000 taka. The intensity of shaking in Dhaka was VIII+ on the Modified Mercili Intensity......

Words: 5719 - Pages: 23

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes Christina OBanion Instructor Kryger SCI/245 February 28, 2010 Earthquakes have been happening for a long time, but now we are able to help detect where and possibly when these events might happen. They now seem to be getting stronger than they were in the past and even more frequent. No matter when or where earthquakes happen people always need to be aware that they have the potential to be devastating for those close by, or even those who are on the other side of the world. Earthquakes happen several different ways and I will try to explain this. The Earth has different types of plate margins that can cause earthquakes. The first type of plate margin is called the divergent margin, this is when oceanic or continental lithospheric plates move apart from each other due to mantle convection and new crust is created by magma pushing up from the mantle. The majority of these divergent margins are located in the ocean. One example of this type of margin on land is the Imperial Valley of California/Mexico. Another type of plate margin is the convergent margin and this happens when two plates move together or converge meaning one plate sinks (is subducted) under another. There can be three different types of convergences: oceanic-oceanic, oceanic-continental, continental-continental. One place where oceanic-continental convergence has occurred is off the coast of South America, along the Peru-Chile trench. The Nazca Plate (oceanic) is pushing into and being...

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Earthquake

...Earthquake From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. For other uses, see Earthquake (disambiguation). [pic] An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor, temblor or seismic activity) is the result of a sudden release of energy in theEarth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer; a device which also records is known as aseismograph. The moment magnitude (or the related and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude) of an earthquake is conventionally reported, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquakeepicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity. In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus orhypocenter. The term epicenter refers to the point......

Words: 11888 - Pages: 48

Traditional Schooling Is More Beneficial

...Traditional Schooling is More Beneficial Traditonal schooling is when you attend a formal class room setting. As you all know, technology is rapidly growing throughout the world. Everyday you are associated with a form of technology and it is becoming more predominant in your lives. Now, online classes are an option. This advancement changes the ways and motivation of learning. Students no longer have to "go" to class; they can get online at home, a cafe, or anywhere else that provides internet access. Online classes may seem more convenient, but traditional learning is more beneficial. Many people argue that online learning is just as beneficial as traditional learning, if not more. Online learning allows you to have access to your classes where ever you go. You can go on vacation, or simply out to lunch and carry your classes with you. This is also helpful for you if you work or have kids. Not only is it nice to always have the classes available, you can also view the lesson or lecture as needed. In traditional school you do not have that opportunity unless you video record or tape the class. You still have a deadline to complete the class, but you can work at your own pace and when you have the time. Online classes also offer the opportunity to learn from professors around the world. This allows you to learn about other cultures. Since technology is changing so rapidly, the option of taking online classes will assist you "keeping up" with technology. The......

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes If one could have stood out in space for a fantastically long time and looked back at the Earth, one would have seen the continents themselves in motion, drifting apart on their crustal plates, held afloat by the fire beneath. That is a poetically turned phrase from Lewis Thomas, which beautifully sums up the mechanics behind plate tectonics, and ultimately behind earthquakes. The following is a brief sketch on earthquakes, their cause and effect, how they are measured, and an area where they frequently occur. Plate Margins There are two different plate margins. These are convergent margins and divergent margins. When two plates move and finally come together it is called convergent margins. Divergent margins are the exact opposite than convergent margins. Instead of moving towards each other the plates move away from each other. Measuring Earthquakes Just by looking at the mass destruction left behind by earthquakes one can see that they vary in size and strength. Earthquakes are measured in size and strength by what is called the Richter scale. The Richter scale was developed by a man names Charles Richter. The majorities of the earthquakes that occur each year are a magnitude of 2.5 or less and go unnoticed by humans. The Richter scale can measure both small and very large earthquakes; this could be ripples in the earth that not one person could feel or it could be earthquakes of mass destruction just like the earthquake of Japan. Also the movement......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Earthquake

...Eartquake What is an earthquake? An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. The surface where they slip is called the fault or fault plane. The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter. Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks. These are smaller earthquakes that happen in the same place as the larger earthquake that follows. Scientists can’t tell that an earthquake is a foreshock until the larger earthquake happens. The largest, main earthquake is called the mainshock. Mainshocks always have aftershocks that follow. These are smaller earthquakes that occur afterwards in the same place as the mainshock. Depending on the size of the mainshock, aftershocks can continue for weeks, months, and even years after the mainshock! Causes of earthquakes and How earthquakes happen The earth has four major layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. (figure 2) The crust and the top of the mantle make up a thin skin on the surface of our planet. But this skin is not all in one piece – it is made up of many pieces like a puzzle covering the surface of the earth. Not only that, but these puzzle pieces keep slowly moving around, sliding past one another and bumping into each other. We call these puzzle pieces tectonic plates, and the edges of the plates are called the plate boundaries. The......

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Lego - One More Brick in the Wall?

...| Lego: One More Brick In The Wall? | | | 1. How has the mission definition of Lego evolved overtime? Is it relevant today? How does this definition shape Lego's strategy? First we need to define mission. Mission is the purpose of the company it should be market-oriented, meaningful and motivating. They shouldn’t simply describe what the company sells; they should “emphasize the company’s strengths in the marketplace“. Since the beginning of Lego the mission was to produce quality toys. Like many other companies, they simply described what they were selling instead of reveling their strengths and motivations. In 2004 Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen stepped down as chief executive and hired Jorgen Knudstorp to run the family company. One of the first things Jorgen did was changing the mission to one that was truly oriented “To inspire and develop the builders of tomorrow” which they explained was driven by their “ultimate purpose is to inspire and develop children to think creatively, reason systematically and release their potential to shape their own future – experiencing the endless human possibility“. Nowadays this change revels that not only they were able of distinguish themselves from the other competitors but also create a brand that is known by is premium quality and creativity. 2. Prior to 2004 was Lego focused on its products or its marketplace? By analyzing the case we see that 2004......

Words: 1488 - Pages: 6

Earthquakes

...Assignment: Earthquakes Sci/245 Assignment: Earthquakes Plate margins are involved in the Earth as a major provider to many of Earth’s geological formations. These plates are approximately 100 kilometers thick, which is very thin compared to the largeness of a 6000-kilometer radius of the Earth. Most major plates include both continental crust and oceanic crust. An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth’s crust due to a sudden release of energy. They are caused by stress that builds up between two lithospheric plates. When two plates slide next to each other, friction usually prevents the plates from moving. Instead of moving, the stresses on the plates cause the plates to change shape. Eventually, the stresses on the plates come great enough to overcome friction, and the plates suddenly move, causing an earthquake. The earthquake releases the stress, and builds up more again over time. Earthquakes generally occur along faults. A fault is a break or crack in Earth’s crust along which movement has occurred. An earthquake produces waves called seismic waves, which transmit energy. Seismic waves are detected and recorded by a device called a seismograph. A seismograph detects ground movements—either horizontal or vertical motions. The set of jagged lines recorded on paper is called a seismogram. There are different types of seismographs, depending on the types of earthquakes intended to record. Most modern seismographs are electronic devices rather than......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

...the Earthquake

...The 1906 Earthquake Do you know anything about the Sanfransisco earthquake of 1906? Do you know Emma Burke’s point of view of the earthquake? The author’s purpose affects the narrator’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, by keeping the purpose to inform us and to try not to reveal how she feels. Emma Burke’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake was that even though the destruction was immense, people were working hard to help. Based on what I read it stated “Chimney’s on roof’s, on the street, bricks and broken glass everywhere, stone steps gaping apart, wooden ones splintered, and buildings at straight angles.” This explains the destruction and aftermath of the earthquake in detail. Moon Shadow’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake was how he was upset and disturbed by what he saw and heard. The author wrote a few things explaining this, one of them being, “A strange eerie silence hung over the city, as if itself were holding it’s breath.” This tells us how everything felt way to quiet, and was a bit strange of how there was almost no noise. Emma Burke’s purpose affects the narrator’s point of view by being able to in form readers about the 1906 earthquake, while Yep’s purpose was to entertain us by telling us a story to keep us reading about the earthquake. (For Fun.) In Conclusion, the author’s purpose affect’s the narrator’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake by......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Earthquakes

...Salgado Earthquakes Science SC300 Unit 4 May 12, 2011 Professor Jayne Yenko Earthquakes There are not many things in life that petrify me but earthquakes are pretty high on the list. Just the uncertainty of not knowing if this could be the next big one. Realistically speaking, where can you go to be safe from an earthquake? Luckily for me, there seems to be no great danger of earthquakes in the southeast region of the US. I live in Atlanta, Ga. and according to the map fig.17-22** in our text it seems that we are in a blue low risk area, where individual measurements of seismic wave velocities reveal cooler rocks under the southeastern US. However, just a little further northwest of Georgia according to the seismic map in the USGC website* there seems to be a small area of higher earthquake activity between Missouri, and Tennessee. The Midwest seems to be free of earthquakes while the west coast has an abundance of earthquake activity. California has the 2nd highest amount of earthquake activity in the US, after Alaska that produces more than half the earthquakes in the country. The earth has three major subduction zones. The first is a large area called the pacific ring of fire, this includes North and South America the east coast of Asia, and the western pacific islands of the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, and New Zealand. Most of the plates are being subducted, while some plates scrape past each other. The second major divergent or earthquake......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Earthquakes

...Assignment: Earthquakes Axia Colleges of the University of Phoenix By To understand why the Earth moves the way that it does along and through its diverse layers, we must have a better understanding of the physical science surrounding both plate tectonics, and earthquakes. This is a summation on earthquakes; what causes earthquake to occur, the effects of earthquakes on surroundings, how the strength of earthquakes are measured, and the regions in which earthquakes are most likely to take place. There are two types of plate margins exist; divergent margins and convergent margins. Convergent margins are the boundaries which are on two plates that proceed into one another and return (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). As a result, this leads to the two distinctive forms of plate margins; it is dependent upon if the boundary is in between two continental plates, in between two pelagic plates, or in between both. However, divergent margins are by far different from convergent margins in that these margins are boundaries along two plates traveling apart from one another; taking place within the pelagic or continental crusts (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). Earthquakes have a tendency to be most frequent along these boundaries being the most unmistakable expression of......

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Earthquakes

...It’s Shifting Plates & the Consequences The Earth is a combination of sand, rocks, molten lava; this definition would force one to conclude that our world is a contradiction in terms. This is not the case, we dwell on solid rock that is the surface of the Earth; the overwhelming facets of the Earth exist below the surface. It is here that we will find the tectonic plates of the Earth and cause for Earthquakes. An earthquake occurs as the two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another (usgs.gov). Generally a quake will occur without warning, although many times there may be a foreshock (smaller earthquake near epicenter, similar to an aftershock), which is usually mistaken for the Earthquake until the actual higher magnitude quake occurs. These shifts seem to happen without warning, however, upon observation and tracking of geological survey, structures, and pattern, it is possible to decipher the probable location of an earthquake. The United States Geological Survey map is a valuable tool when attempting to decipher whether a particular state is an Earthquake hotspot. Upon review of the Geological survey, one will notice that Pacific coast and the islands in the Pacific Ocean are furthermost susceptible to the quakes. Hazard levels range the low teens to over fifty percent. Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri rest on the New Madrid Fault line; subsequently these are states that share the red zone symbolizing the greatest risk for activity. We will notice......

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6

Earthquakes

...In the United States, the most high risk earthquake areas according to the USGS Map ("USGS," 2008) are the western most outer lying areas running from California to Seattle. There is one hotspot covering Northeast Arkansas, Southeast Missouri, Western tip of Tennessee, and then the Eastern portion of South Carolina. With the exception of the hotspot in the middle of the country, the real hot spots are the outer lying areas, mostly on the west coast, but in South Carolina as well are some hazardous areas in the Northeast, like the tippy top of Maine, a little part of the northern part of New York. It is not as great on the opposite side of the country, but still reaches up to 32 on the scale that goes to 64, so that is half as dangerous as California or the state of Washington, but much greater than in most other parts of the country. That leads to the conclusion that coastal states are much more dangerous than the rest of the country with the exception of the one Midwestern area noted earlier. Around the world, the pattern that shows up is that island countries, such as Japan in the Pacific, or the Dominican Republic in the Atlantic are the highest risk areas. South Central Pennsylvania is a relatively low risk area, coming in at the 4 – 8 mark on the scale, but just outside of the higher risk area of Eastern Pennsylvania, which is slightly higher and goes up to 16 on the scale. If a good job opportunity came up in a high risk, red area, I would take the risk because it......

Words: 895 - Pages: 4

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes are one of Mother Nature’s most powerful forces and have plagued our lives for as long as people have inhabited the earth. These dangerous acts of the earth have been the cause of many deaths in the past century. So what can be done about these violent eruptions that take place nearly without warning? Predicting an earthquake, until now, has almost been technologically impossible. However, with recent improvements in technology and science, many lives have been saved and many more will be. What is an earthquake and how do they occur? Did you know that most of the famous mountains are a result of an earthquake? (Cosmeo, 2008) That tidbit of information was just a little side note; now back to the paper. Earth is a planet that is made up of multiple layers. These layers include an inner layer and an outer layer and layer in between. The inner layer of the earth is a ball of molten rock that rotates within the earth. The other layers that are on top of the inner layer are floating about as a pliable ball of molten rock. The outer layer is what we refer to as the crust. The crust is very thin when compared to the other layers of the Earth. For example, think of the outer layer of an orange as it relates to the interior of the orange. This example relates closely to what the Earth looks like when we examine the crust. The crust and other layers floats upon the mantle core. The crust of the earth is made up of multiple pieces. Each of these giant pieces is called a......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

تحميل | Jo Tu Na Mila - Single - Asim Azhar | This War of Mine All Unlimited