Urban Studies Final

In: Social Issues

Submitted By cherellevance
Words 1933
Pages 8
The concept of public goods is goods are consumed by households who do not pay for them however they do receive the benefit of the good. Another concept of a public good is one household’s consumption of the good does not reduce the amount which is left over for the consumption of the other households. The cost of extending service to an additional person is zero for public goods and it is impossible to exclude individuals from enjoying.
Some examples of public goods are the Emergency Alert System, street lightening for roads and highways, flood control systems, radio broadcasts, free to air television, air, and national defense. I believe the examples of public goods described above could never be extended a cost to the public for usage. It is literally impossible to bill for the services due to the free rider problem. There is no way to stop a person who would refuse to pay for the services from using and benefiting from the service just as much as a person who would agree to pay.
In addition, it would be unreasonable to expect an individual to contribute when there is no way to stop another person from utilizing the same good for free. Another view would be if a person was required to pay for public goods the goods would have to be produced in ways consumers would recognize the value solely for them. Public goods are known to have greater importance in urban areas and high-density communities.
The role I think public goods should play in cities and urbanized areas are to remain free. The tax dollars individuals pay should contribute to the cost associated with these services. There is no feasible way to monitor who will take advantage of national defense. To have a toll setup on every street and stated a person cannot drive down the street with lights unless a fee is paid. When it comes to public goods the government must continue to absorb any associated…...

Similar Documents

Urban Outfiters Continuing Case Study: Marketing a Business

...Date: October 27, 2011 Student Name: Instruction Name: Professor James Young Course/Class: BUS100096VA016-1118-001 Assignment #1: Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study Part 2: Creating a Business 1. Setting up a business can be a very challenging job. Having a beautiful dream thinking about the business while sitting in your nice office with all the amenities is not enough. It is great to have an idea, but you have to make that idea work. There are lots of challenges that face their owners when setting up a business. It could take years for a business to produce enough profits for the owners to be able to enjoy. Most businesses start small and in time, with experience, goodwill, and success, they can grow into bigger businesses. Here are three challenges that new business face: ➢ Idea/Concept: Many entrepreneurs face risks to create their own business because they do not have the right idea or concept. Sometime ideas and concepts are good but if customers will not buy what they are offering, the business will fail. Richard Hayne and his wife Judy along with an old college roommate, Scott Belair had a great idea. They wanted to open a small shop filled with unique objects that they could sell. The basically sold used second hand clothes, bohemian knickknacks, and “found objects”. Their customers would come for the unique “found objects” and were willing to pay what they were being sold for. Entrepreneurs-......

Words: 1362 - Pages: 6

Urban Outfitters Case Study

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study Part 2 1. Setting up a new business can be a tumultuous task. Order, timing and planning is key when trying to execute a successful business. Even though you might have an excellent idea without proper execution a business can fail. It is imperative to understand that starting a business is not easy and conducting your own research, heeding the advice of experienced business owners and seeking other organizations and resources that help small business owners are key steps in addressing these challenges. - Financing. Does the owner have sufficient cash to fund the opening of the business as well as its ongoing operations? Many times the owner has enough financing to open their doors but they run into cash flow troubles and end up losing their business because they have failed to consider that the business has ongoing cash flow requirements. Excess growth can be a factor, and financing limitations can hinder growth, or growth can outstrip financing and cause a liquidity crisis. - Securing an Appropriate Location. In retail, location can be a deal maker or a deal breaker of the success of the firm. The type of product can have a big impact on the appropriateness of a given location. For example, in the Urban Outfitters case, the owners decided at first to focus their store openings near college campuses where young people looking for trendy fashions would tend to be in close proximity. - Legal Issues: Patents and trademarks must......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Final Exam Study Guide

...Western Civilization I Comprehensive Final Exam Study 1. __________________ was a Classical Greek philosopher who was accused of corrupting the youth of Athens and condemned to death by poison. P80 2. ____________________ was a Greek city-state in which every male citizen participated in the military. P73,76 3. The Delian League was established on the island of Delos by _________________ and her surrounding city states. P72,73 4. The earliest and most famous Greek historian was _________________. P23 5. Alexander the Great born in/from ___________________. P81,89,91-96 6. Who was the Carthaginian leader who led his troops across the Alps in the Punic Wars? _____________________________ P123-124 7. List the members of the First Triumvirate. ____________________________ P138 8. _______________ was the first Roman emperor to become a Christian. P180-183 9. Which edict legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire? __________________ P180-183 10. Cleopatra of Egypt had a romantic relationship with which two Roman rulers? ____________________________ and _______________________ P97,140-141 11. The Edict of ________________ declared the acceptance of Christianity in Rome. P182 12. ___________________ was the prophet of Islam. P206-208 13. Followers of Muhammad are called __________________. (World Religions lecture) 14. The holy book of Islam is the ___________________. (World Religions lecture) 15. The holy book of the......

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

How to Study for a Final Exam

...How to Study for a Final Exam Teneisha Bonner AIU Online Abstract In order to pass final exams, students have to make sure they take the time out to study. Studying for a final exam will help students to do well and pass. It is important for students to give themselves enough time to get ready for a final exam. There are a lot of steps that students have to take in order to remember and not to forget what is being asked on the final exam. How to Study for a Final Exam Final exams determine if students will pass or fail their classes. Preparing to study for a final exam can sometimes be very stressful for students. The advantages of preparing for a final exam surpass the stress of studying at the last minute. Students need to take their time to study; so that they will be able to do well on their exam. It is important that students know the proper steps to prepare for a final exam in order to succeed. Studying Early The first step that students should do to prepare for a final exam is study early. Students should always start studying early before they take the final exam. Studying early will help students to remember the material and know what they are asked. They should gather up all of their notes and tests they have taken; and at least study them twice a day until it is time to take the exam. Studying for the exam early will give students the opportunity to take their time to do well on the final exam. Practice Tests In the second step,......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Final Study

...Pt1420 Final Exam Guide Boolean Expressions and Relational Operators – Named after English mathematician George Boole. In 1800s Boole invented a system of mathematics in which the abstract concepts of true and false can be used in computations. If-Then statement is formed with a relational operator, which determines whether a specific relationship exists between two values. (>) Greater than operator. (==) Equal to operator. (<) Less than operator. (>=) Greater than or equal to. (<=) Less than or equal to. (!=) Not equal to. The case structure is a multiple alternative decision structure. It allows you to test the value of a variable or an expression and then use that value to determine which statement or set of statements to execute. The testExpression is usually a variable, but in many languages it can also be anything that gives a value (such as a math expression). Short-Circuit Evaluation – In many languages both the AND and OR operators perform short-circuit evaluation. If the expression on the left side of the AND operator is false, the expression on the right side will not be checked. Because the compound expression will be false if only one of the sub-expressions is false, it would waste CPU time to check the remaining expression. So, when the AND operator finds that the expression on its left is false, it short-circuits and does not evaluate the expression on its right. With the OR operator if the expression on the left side...

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study: Marketing a Business

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study: Marketing a business Deborah Riley Dr. John H. Carter BUS100 – Spring/2010 May 30, 2010 Question #1 - Explain why Sears or Wal-mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. In my opinion I don’t think that Wal-mart would be able to create a trendy counterculture because it sales clothes at a lower price. Trendy clothes would not be effective for them because the cost associated with trendy clothes would not be profitable. Wal-mart shoppers are looking for a bargain when they go shopping at their stores. Wal-mart is known for their lowering prices on items in their stores called the Roll Back Price. “Wal-Mart said last week that it is stepping up price cuts, although it wouldn't specify how much it is boosting its typical weekly discounts designed to lure customers.” (Anderson, 2010, para 2). They also buy their merchandise in bulk as oppose to small quantities. While Urban Outfitters buy their merchandise in smaller quantities and there items are priced higher which is why they can create a trendy counterculture. When speaking of Sears they are not on the same line as Wal-mart considering they do not offer their customers price cuts such as roll back prices. But they do buy their merchandise in larger quantities then Urban Outfitters. Sears prices are high when compared to Wal-mart but they offer designer labels that are not offered at Wal-mart. But they also mass......

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Psyc Final Exam Study Guide

...Final Exam: Spring 2015 Dr. Heath What is urbanization? population shift from urban to rural areas...What disciplines contribute to our understanding of urbanization? What factors are considered in determining if an area is “an urbanized area”? How is urbanization related to psychology? Is urbanization increasing or decreasing in the U.S.? Worldwide? What percentage of the world citizens currently are estimated to live in an urban area? What percentage is projected to live in an urban area by 2050? What part of the world will have most of the biggest cities, the developed countries or the developing countries? How does increasing urbanization create stressors for poor urban dwellers? On what measure is Global Burden of Disease (GBD) based? What does this formula mean: DALY = YLL + YLD ?disabilty-adjusted life year =YLL = years of life lost due to premature mortalityYLD = years lived with disability. Do mental disorders contribute to YLL or YLD or both? What is WHO? World health organization...What classification scheme does the WHO use to classify mental disorders? What classification scheme does the USA use to classify mental disorders?International classification of diseases!! What are ICD-10(above) and DSM? diagnostic and statistical maual of mental disorder!!!!Why does it matter what a person’s disorder is classified as? What is depression? What physical diseases does depression correlate with (and probably contribute to)? What are some likely mechanisms by which...

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Urban Outfitters Case Study

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study Part 4: Marketing a Business 1. Explain why Sears or Wal-Mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. Wal-mart and Sears in large part created the idea and foundation for the thinking of bigger is better. How can they try and cater to the little man or sub-culture when they are the very corporation that killed the little man. The basic principles of a sub-culture are to go against the “norm”, and Wal-mart is one of the largest examples of the corporation normalcy. Therefore, the reasons above would be by answer to why they cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. 2. Could the big box stores sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters? Explain your answer. Of course they do in my opinion! Big box stores always take a look at what the market around them is selling best and most of (the trends), anything from clothing to kid’s toys or apparel or even house hold items. The big box store creates a cheaper, less quality product that they mass produce for less. For example, the latest fad for children even young adults is “silly bandz” (rubber bracelets that pop back to their original shape when you take them off, they have animal shaped ones, Disney themes, etc..). Now you see them everywhere but they are called something slightly different from the original brand and are most likely made of cheaper rubber as well and sell for less. Thus in my opinion how the big box stores cater to the......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Urban Regeneration of London Docklands (Case Study)

...Urban Regeneration. The Dockland scheme is an example of Re-generation. This involves partnership and the rebirth of an area. With the aid of labelled maps and satellite images, locate London’s Docklands London's Docklands is the name for an area that lies in the south east of the City of London in England. The area covered by the London Docklands Redevelopment Corporation stretches from Wapping and Tower Bridge in the west to The City Airport and Becckton in the east, and is built on the legacy of the trading power of the British Empire. Explain why the “East End” (Docklands area!) fell into decline After World War 2 London experienced net outward migration where people moved out of the city into surrounding towns and villages. This is known as counter-urbanisation. It was caused by the clearances of slums and bomb damaged areas. It was also down to the green belt, an area of land around London where development was banned or restricted, this meant people had to move further away. It was then found that there was a rapid increase in the amount of people moving to towns and villages around London, mainly commuters and there families. Following on from this came De-industrialisation. Most of the factories being in and round the docks due to materials passing through the docks themselves. After the 1980’s Thatcher’s government shut down most of the mines as it was too costly, therefore factories that relied on materials from mines and other sources no longer got them,......

Words: 1258 - Pages: 6

Urban Outfitters Case Study

...Urban Outfitters Case Study Part 4: Marketing a Business Shanita Provoid Strayer University Explain why Sears or Wal-mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. The reason Wal-Mart or Sears cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image is because in the case of Wal-Mart it operates on a high volume low profit margin and the only way to do this is to be able to mass produce or have your products mass produced for you or at least buy in bulk, that very philosophy males it impossible to be either trendy to counterculture. Trendy counterculture is about be unique or different going against the norms of society. While Sears prices are higher they still sell massed produced items which they believe will appeal to the general population. To try too enter into a niche market and attempt to compete with a retailer like Urban Outfitters would be financially disastrous for either Sears or Walmart. Could the big box stores sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters? Explain your answer. I do not believe that the big box stores sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters because unlike other retailers Urban Outfitters has a history a unique shopping experience and targeting the counterculture, Urban Outfitters cater to the those who see them self on the forefront of fashion. Forward looking research is important; Urban Outfitters has people (fashion hunters) who prowl the products made but in a very small quantity. Urban......

Words: 596 - Pages: 3

Urban Outfitters Case Study

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study: Marketing a Business Jason A. Knight August 21st, 2011 Professor A. Garabedian 1. Explain why Sears or Wal-mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. Urban Outfitters can be credited for successfully creating a trendy counterculture image. They have been able to do this by targeting specific markets in key areas and locations, offering exclusivity, and promoting a certain lifestyle. Sears and Wal-mart have both established themselves as being highly successful and profitable business chains. However, even though these large chains have established themselves as strong contenders in the retail market Sears and Wal-mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. Sears and Wal-mart lack the ability to offer exclusivity and the ability to target specific markets. Both chains are just simply too large. Even though there are Urban Outfitters locations worldwide they still manage to offer a very specific selection of items on a small scale to accommodate the social and socioeconomic demographics of the area in which they are located. You can find a sears or Wal-mart in virtually every state in the U.S. and find the exact same broad range of products. There is really no differentiation, nothing that sets the stores apart. Literally just anyone has the ability to shop in these places and offering such a broad range of products, including groceries, clothing, and electronics attracts a wider range of......

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study

...Unlike other retailers, Urban Outfitters’ marketing nearly begins and ends with the shopping experience itself. The company does little if any advertising, in print or otherwise. Nearly everything rides on producing a unique experience. Urban Outfitters has been a consistent winner with tight marketing and storefronts that completely set it apart from other retailers. Typically a niche company finds a narrow category in the broader industry where it can outperform larger retailers. Once the consumer is singled out and approached with the right sort of attention, that consumer will respond to the brand. For Urban Outfitters, this meant understanding the psychology of a very specific group of customers and then doing something a big retailer literally could not do: be small and exclusive. But Urban Outfitters did it on a not-so-small scale and without much traditional marketing. From the beginning, Urban Outfitters used location, the shopping experience, and a certain sense of fashion to sell to people who were somewhat counterculture and certainly not looking for conformity. Originally thought of as the “hip” college crowd, the typical Urban Outfitters’ customer is looking for a sense of differentiation. By all indications, this conception was accidental; when Hayne opened his first 400 sq. ft. store, he probably had no illusions of “chipping away” at JC Penney’s or Sears’ market share. All the same, Hayne essentially invented a category, and discovered that his......

Words: 1036 - Pages: 5

Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study #1

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study Part 2: Creating a Business Identify 3 challenges when setting up a business. Explain why they are challenges. Since we live in such a technological age, customers can surf the web 24 hours a day and seven days a week, looking for the lowest price available. So, it will be up to the business owner to market a quality and unique product that will spark the interest of customers and will ultimately encourage them to buy. Considering the last few years that our nation has been in a recession, housing and banking loans have been very difficult to obtain, so I’m sure it’s just as difficult to get approved for a business loan. Also, being a new brand or business, banks may also be less inclined to give out credit. So, it will be a huge challenge to the available funds to start a business. Being able to persevere during the rough times, it’s all on you. Being an owner, you will have to be 110% invested mentally and physically, but also be motivated to take on every challenge that may arise. Whether it be uninspired employees to possible a natural disaster damaging your business. The way you handle each obstacle can make or break your business. Define what a “niche” product is. Give at least 3 examples. A niche product is a product made and marketed for use in a small and specialized group. The iPad, BlackBerry Torch and Taylor Made Burner Irons are three examples of a “niche” product. Explain why a niche company might......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study: Marketing a Business 1. Explain why Sears or Wall-mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. Sears and Wal-Mart do not solely devote time to the fashion business. They sell clothes because it is a necessity everyone has and to make money. That is their main goal. In doing so, they are like a high school teenager. They see a fashion trend in the magazine or in their case, big corporation see what the leading fashion industries are buying and follow suit. Then they mass produce that look, using cheap materials and most of the time the craftsmanship is poor. People interested in being trendy want to make a statement about who they are and are out and be different. The clothes sold at Sears and Wal-Mart is available to everyone and is not in any way unique. 2. Could the big box stores sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters? Explain your answer. Wal-Mart and Sears are unable to sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters because they mass produce there items and the clothes are often poorly made with low end quality material. They focus more on quantity instead of quality to meet the highest profitability. Urban Outfitters sell their merchandise for a higher price and sell a smaller amount of items to turn a profit; Sears and Wal-Mart must sell a significant amount more to make the same profitability. Also, Urban Outfitters makes sure they have the current trends, Sears and Wal-Mart stores......

Words: 612 - Pages: 3

Creating a Business Urban Outfitters Case Study

...Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study: Creating a Business Steve Jobs Introduction to Business Professor Mariatta Lewis July 31, 2011 Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study: Creating a Business Starting a business can be very challenging. There’s always a positive and negative side to it and it’s not always easy. Entrepreneurs and business owners will always over come different challenges when setting up a business. Finances, location, and finding a good staff is all linked together but can be challenging when opening up a business. Finances have a big part to opening up a business. You will have to find the right lender and see who has the best interest rates for business loans. For example, if I was to start up my own restaurant I will need money to buy or rent a facility, buy restaurant equipment, or buying the food. First I will have to sit down and set up a business plan and see what is within my budget. If the bank qualifies you for a $100,000 loan you know that is your budget. Figure out what you need to get for the business, find the location, and hiring a staff. A good way to budget is find stores that sell cheap items and buy things in bulk. Budgeting money can be very challenging because when you have that large lump sum it’s easy to just buy whatever you see. So as a new business owner plan out what you need for the business and budget the money you got. Finding a location can be very challenging. Explore your options to see if it...

Words: 1084 - Pages: 5

Ichigo Mashimaro OVA | musik schneiden | FantasíA