Work and Motivation

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By dvmefodev
Words 605
Pages 3
One of the main tasks of manager is to motivate his employees to work efficiently.
So, in 1960, in The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglass McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Both of these theories begin with the premise that management’s role is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm. Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge.
Firstly, Theory X assumes that the average person: • Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it; • Has no ambition, wants no responsibilities, and would rather follow than lead; • Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organization goals; • Resists change; • Is gullible and not particularly intelligent. Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. However, there is a problem with Theory X. Drawing on Maslow’s hierarchy, McGregor argues that a satisfied need no longer motivates. Under Theory X the firm relies on money and benefits to satisfy employees’ lower needs. But it’s in satisfying their higher needs the employees can be most productive. McGregor makes the point that a command and control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs as levers of motivation but in modern society those needs already are satisfied and thus no longer are motivators. From this reason, McGregor proposed an alternative: Theory Y. The higher –level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. The theory makes the following general assumptions: • Work can be as natural as play and rest; • People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them; • People will be committed to their…...

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